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The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizae. Based on their chemical and physical properties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and(More)
Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to(More)
To investigate whether Cd induces common plant defense pathways or unspecific necrosis, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, changes in ascorbate-glutathione-related antioxidant systems, secondary metabolism (peroxidases, phenolics, and lignification), and developmental changes, was(More)
The responses of Populus euphratica Oliv. plants to soil water deficit were assessed by analyzing gene expression, protein profiles, and several plant performance criteria to understand the acclimation of plants to soil water deficit. Young, vegetatively propagated plants originating from an arid, saline field site were submitted to a gradually increasing(More)
Plants growing in their natural habitat represent a valuable resource for elucidating mechanisms of acclimation to environmental constraints. Populus euphratica is a salt-tolerant tree species growing in saline semi-arid areas. To identify genes involved in abiotic stress responses under natural conditions we constructed several normalized and subtracted(More)
The present study introduces metabolic modeling as a new tool to analyze the network of redox reactions composing the superoxide dismutase-ascorbate (Asc)-glutathione (GSH) cycle. Based on previously determined concentrations of antioxidants and defense enzymes in chloroplasts, kinetic properties of antioxidative enzymes, and nonenzymatic rate constants of(More)
Forest ecosystems are important sinks for rising concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). In previous research, we showed that net primary production (NPP) increased by 23 +/- 2% when four experimental forests were grown under atmospheric concentrations of CO(2) predicted for the latter half of this century. Because nitrogen (N) availability commonly limits(More)
The genus Populus has a wide distribution in different climatic zones. Besides its economic and ecological relevance, Populus also serves as a model for elucidating physiological and molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in tree species. In this review, adaptation strategies of poplars to excess soil salinity are addressed at different scales, from the(More)
Populus euphratica Olivier is known to exist in saline and arid environments. In this study we investigated the physiological mechanisms enabling this species to cope with stress caused by salinity. Acclimation to increasing Na+ concentrations required adjustments of the osmotic pressure of leaves, which were achieved by accumulation of Na+ and compensatory(More)
PeNhaD1 encodes a putative Na+/H+ antiporter from the salt-resistant tree Populus euphratica. It is the first characterization of a member of the NhaD type ion transporter family of plant origin. Homology searches revealed its close relation to functionally characterized microbial Na+/H+ antiporters VpNhaD and VcNhaD. Na+/H+ antiporters have proven to play(More)