Andrea Olschewski

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Spinal muscular atrophies (SMA, also known as hereditary motor neuropathies) and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders of the peripheral nervous system. Here we report that mutations in the TRPV4 gene cause congenital distal SMA, scapuloperoneal SMA, HMSN 2C. We identified three missense(More)
The excitability of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) is regulated by potassium (K+) conductances. Although studies suggest that background K+ currents carried by 2-pore domain K+ channels are important regulators of resting membrane potential in PASMC, their role in human PASMC is unknown. Our study tested the hypothesis that TASK-1 leak K+(More)
Regional alveolar hypoxia causes local vasoconstriction in the lung, shifting blood flow from hypoxic to normoxic areas, thereby maintaining gas exchange. This mechanism is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). Disturbances in HPV can cause life-threatening hypoxemia whereas chronic hypoxia triggers lung vascular remodeling and pulmonary(More)
Localized alveolar hypoxia causes constriction of the small resistance pulmonary arteries, thus diverting the desaturated, mixed-venous blood to better ventilated areas of the lung. Although modulated by endothelial vasoactive substances, the constrictor response to hypoxia is intrinsic to the smooth muscle cell. Ion channels are important elements in two(More)
BACKGROUND Clonidine has often been applied in combination with local anaesthetics for spinal or epidural anaesthesia. This study was designed to investigate the local anaesthetic-like action of clonidine in superficial dorsal horn neurones. The superficial laminae of the dorsal horn contain three groups of neurones: tonic-, adapting-, and(More)
BACKGROUND The dorsal horn of the spinal cord is a pivotal point for transmission of neuronal pain. During spinal and epidural anesthesia, the neurons of the dorsal horn are exposed to local anesthetics. Unfortunately, little is known about the action of local anesthetics on the major ionic conductances in dorsal horn neurons. In this article, the authors(More)
Endothelin (ET)-1 causes long-lasting vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling by interacting with specific G-protein-coupled receptors in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), and thus plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. The two-pore domain K(+) channel, TASK-1, controls the resting membrane potential(More)
(1) Hyperpolarizing voltage steps evoke slowly activating inward currents in a variety of neurones and in cardiac cells. This hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)) is thought to play a significant role in cell excitability, firing frequency, or in setting of the resting membrane potential in these cells. We studied the effects of lidocaine,(More)
TGF-β is a pathogenic factor in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a condition characterized by alveolar edema. A unique TGF-β pathway is described, which rapidly promoted internalization of the αβγ epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) complex from the alveolar epithelial cell surface, leading to persistence of pulmonary edema. TGF-β(More)