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Founder analysis is a method for analysis of nonrecombining DNA sequence data, with the aim of identification and dating of migrations into new territory. The method picks out founder sequence types in potential source populations and dates lineage clusters deriving from them in the settlement zone of interest. Here, using mtDNA, we apply the approach to(More)
The most recent findings in the elucidation of the molecular pathology of Huntington's disease are reviewed. Particular interest has been paid to the role of huntingtin and its associated proteins in excitotoxicity mediated via NMDA and kainate receptors.
Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences from 10,365 subjects belonging to 56 populations/geographical regions of western Eurasia and northern Africa were first surveyed for the presence of the T-->C transition at nucleotide position 16298, a mutation which has previously been shown to characterize haplogroup V mtDNAs. All mtDNAs with this mutation were then screened(More)
The initial observation of an expanded and unstable trinucleotide repeat in the Huntington's disease gene has now been confirmed and extended in 150 independent Huntington's disease families. HD chromosomes contained 37-86 repeat units, whereas normal chromosomes displayed 11-34 repeats. The HD repeat length was inversely correlated with the age of onset of(More)
We examined variation on the nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome to investigate human evolution during the last 200,000 years. The Y-specific polymorphic sites included the Y Alu insertional polymorphism or "YAP" element (DYS287), the poly(A) tail associated with the YAP element, three point mutations in close association with the YAP insertion(More)
We estimate parameters of a general isolation-with-migration model using resequence data from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the Y chromosome, and two loci on the X chromosome in samples of 25-50 individuals from each of 10 human populations. Application of a coalescent-based Markov chain Monte Carlo technique allows simultaneous inference of divergence times,(More)
Sequence diversity and the ages of the deepest nodes of the MSY phylogeny remain largely unexplored due to the severely biased collection of SNPs available for study. We characterized 68 worldwide Y chromosomes by high-coverage next-generation sequencing, including 18 deep-rooting ones, and identified 2386 SNPs, 80% of which were novel. Many aspects of this(More)
We have previously reported that the Tharu people of the Terai region in southern Nepal have an incidence of malaria about sevenfold lower than that of synpatric non-Tharu people. In order to find out whether this marked resistance against malaria has a genetic basis, we have now determined in these populations the prevalence of candidate protective genes(More)
The Mediterranean region has been characterised by a number of pre-historical and historical demographic events whose legacy on the current genetic landscape is still a matter of debate. In order to investigate the degree of population structure across the Mediterranean, we have investigated Y chromosome variation in a large dataset of Mediterranean(More)
Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the HD gene on chromosome 4p16.3. Past studies have shown that the size of expanded CAG repeat is inversely associated with age at onset (AO) of HD. It is not known whether the normal Huntington allele size influences the relation between the expanded(More)