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Founder analysis is a method for analysis of nonrecombining DNA sequence data, with the aim of identification and dating of migrations into new territory. The method picks out founder sequence types in potential source populations and dates lineage clusters deriving from them in the settlement zone of interest. Here, using mtDNA, we apply the approach to(More)
Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences from 10,365 subjects belonging to 56 populations/geographical regions of western Eurasia and northern Africa were first surveyed for the presence of the T-->C transition at nucleotide position 16298, a mutation which has previously been shown to characterize haplogroup V mtDNAs. All mtDNAs with this mutation were then screened(More)
We examined variation on the nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome to investigate human evolution during the last 200,000 years. The Y-specific polymorphic sites included the Y Alu insertional polymorphism or "YAP" element (DYS287), the poly(A) tail associated with the YAP element, three point mutations in close association with the YAP insertion(More)
The initial observation of an expanded and unstable trinucleotide repeat in the Huntington's disease gene has now been confirmed and extended in 150 independent Huntington's disease families. HD chromosomes contained 37-86 repeat units, whereas normal chromosomes displayed 11-34 repeats. The HD repeat length was inversely correlated with the age of onset of(More)
The proportion of Europeans descending from Neolithic farmers ∼ 10 thousand years ago (KYA) or Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers has been much debated. The male-specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY) has been widely applied to this question, but unbiased estimates of diversity and time depth have been lacking. Here we show that European patrilineages(More)
Sequence diversity and the ages of the deepest nodes of the MSY phylogeny remain largely unexplored due to the severely biased collection of SNPs available for study. We characterized 68 worldwide Y chromosomes by high-coverage next-generation sequencing, including 18 deep-rooting ones, and identified 2386 SNPs, 80% of which were novel. Many aspects of this(More)
We explored the spatial distribution of human Y chromosomal diversity on a microgeographic scale, by typing 30 population samples from closely spaced locations in Italy and Greece for 9 haplogroups and their internal microsatellite variation. We confirm a significant difference in the composition of the Y chromosomal gene pools of the two countries.(More)
We have typed 275 men from five populations in Algeria, Tunisia, and Egypt with a set of 119 binary markers and 15 microsatellites from the Y chromosome, and we have analyzed the results together with published data from Moroccan populations. North African Y-chromosomal diversity is geographically structured and fits the pattern expected under an(More)
We typed 1801 males from 55 locations for the Y-specific binary markers YAP, DYZ3, SRY10831 and the (CA)n microsatellites YCAII and DYS413. Phylogenetic relationships of chromosomes with the same binary haplotype were condensed in seven large one-step networks, which accounted for 95% of all chromosomes. Their coalescence ages were estimated based on(More)
In this work we focus on a microsatellite-defined Y-chromosomal lineage (network 1.2) identified by us and reported in previous studies, whose geographic distribution and antiquity appear to be compatible with the Neolithic spread of farmers. Here, we set network 1.2 in the Y-chromosomal phylogenetic tree, date it with respect to other lineages associated(More)