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A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circulation is demonstrated in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry–Climate Model (GEOSCCM). Specifically, an updated parameterization of roughness at the air–sea interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4–20 m s 21), leads to a(More)
Cirrus clouds determine the radiative balance of the upper troposphere and the transport of water vapor across the tropopause. The representation of vertical wind velocity, W, in atmospheric models constitutes the largest source of uncertainty in the calculation of the cirrus formation rate. Using global atmospheric simulations with a spatial resolution of(More)
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2 ABSTRACT 9 A robust connection between the drag on surface-layer winds and the stratospheric circu-12 interface, in which surface roughness is increased for moderate wind speeds (4m/s to 20m/s), 13 leads to a decrease in model biases in Southern Hemispheric ozone, polar cap temperature, 14 stationary wave heat flux, and springtime vortex breakup. A(More)
Authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: The present study extends the applicability of a statistical model for prediction of storm surge originally developed for The Battery, NY in two ways: I. the statistical model is used as a biascorrection for operationally produced dynamical surge forecasts, and II. the statistical model is applied to the(More)