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Java is a safe language. Its runtime environment provides strong safety guarantees that any Java application can rely on. Or so we think. We show that the runtime actually does not provide these guarantees---for a large fraction of today's Java code. Unbeknownst to many application developers, the Java runtime includes a "backdoor" that allows expert(More)
This paper describes an approach (SPY) to recovering the specification of a software component from the observation of its run-time behavior. It focuses on components that behave as data abstractions. Components are assumed to be black boxes that do not allow any implementation inspection. The inferred description may help understand what the component does(More)
Specification recovery is a necessary step of many reverse engineering and reuse efforts. This paper deals with recovering the semantic part of a component's interface. It focuses on stateful components that provide data abstractions. Recovery is achieved by following a black-box strategy, i.e. by observing the component's dynamic behavior. Among the(More)
—Stack Overflow is a popular questions and answers (Q&A) website among software developers. It counts more than two millions of users who actively contribute by asking and answering thousands of questions daily. Identifying and reviewing low quality posts preserves the quality of site's contents and it is crucial to maintain a good user experience. In Stack(More)
The design and evolution of a software system leave traces in various kinds of artifacts. In software, produced by humans for humans, many artifacts are written in natural language by people involved in the project. Such entities contain structured information which constitute a valuable source of knowledge for analyzing and comprehending a system's design(More)
We consider the problem of run-time discovery and continuous monitoring of new components that live in an open environment. We focus on extracting a formal model—which may not be available— by observing the behavior of the running component. We show how the model built at run time can be enriched through new observations (dynamic model update). We also use(More)
—Integrated Development Environments (IDEs) have become the de facto standard vehicle to develop software systems. The user interface (UI) of an IDE offers a staggering amount of facilities to manipulate source code, such as inspectors, debuggers, recommenders, alternative viewers, etc. It is unclear how developers use the UI of an IDE and whether such UIs(More)
—Technical questions and answers (Q&A) services have become a valuable resource for developers. A prominent example of technical Q&A website is Stack Overflow (SO), which relies on a growing community of more than two millions of users who actively contribute by asking questions and providing answers. To maintain the value of this resource, poor quality(More)
—It is common knowledge that program comprehension takes up a substantial part of software development. This " urban legend " is based on work that dates back decades, which throws up the question whether the advances in software development tools, techniques, and methodologies that have emerged since then may invalidate or confirm the claim. We present an(More)