Andrea Megela Simmons

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Echolocating bats (Eptesicus fuscus) can detect changes as small as 500 nanoseconds in the arrival time of sonar echoes when these changes appear as jitter or alternations in arrival time from one echo to the next. The psychophysical function relating the bat's performance to the magnitude of the jitter corresponds to the half-wave rectified(More)
1. Behavioral experiments with jittering echoes examined acoustic images of sonar targets in the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, along the echo delay or target range axis. Echo phase, amplitude, bandwidth, and signal-to-noise ratio were manipulated to assess the underlying auditory processes for image formation. 2. Fine delay acuity is about 10 ns.(More)
The sensitivity of the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to sonar echoes at different time delays after sonar emissions was measured in a two-choice echo detection experiment. Since echo delay is perceptually equivalent to target range, the experiment effectively measured sensitivity to targets at different ranges. The bat's threshold for detecting sonar(More)
1. FM echolocating bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were trained to discriminate between a two-component complex target and a one-component simple target simulated by electronically-returned echoes in a series of experiments that explore the composition of the image of the two-component target. In Experiment I, echoes for each target were presented sequentially, and(More)
1. In Eptesicus the auditory cortex, as defined by electrical activity recorded from microelectrodes in response to tone bursts, FM sweeps, and combinations of FM sweeps, encompasses an average cortical surface area of 5.7 mm2. This area is large with respect to the total cortical surface area and reflects the importance of auditory processing to this(More)
Echolocating bats behave as though they perceive the crosscorrelation functions between their sonar transmissions and echoes as images of targets, at least with respect to perception of target range, horizontal direction, and shape. These data imply that bats use a multi-dimensional acoustic imaging system for echolocation with broadband, usually(More)
The absorption of sound propagating through the atmosphere under laboratory conditions of 25 degrees C and 50% relative humidity was measured at frequencies from 30 to 200 kHz. The attenuating effect on the passage of ultrasonic sounds through air ranged from 0.7 dB/m at 30 kHz. These measurements confirm theoretical expectations and earlier observations(More)
Pteronotus parnellii uses the second harmonic (61-62 kHz) of the CF component in its orientation sounds for Doppler-shift compensation. The bat's inner ear is mechanically specialized for fine analysis of sounds at about 61-62 kHz. Because of this specialization, cochlear microphonics (CM) evoked by 61-62 kHz tone bursts exhibit prominent transients, slow(More)
Behavioural studies and field observations demonstrate that echolocating bats simultaneously perceive range, direction and shape of multiple objects in the environment as acoustic images derived from echoes. Cortical echo delay-tuned neurons contribute to the perception of object range, because focal inactivation of these neurons disrupts behavioural(More)