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Humans have a unique ability to learn more than one language--a skill that is thought to be mediated by functional (rather than structural) plastic changes in the brain. Here we show that learning a second language increases the density of grey matter in the left inferior parietal cortex and that the degree of structural reorganization in this region is(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified category-selective regions in ventral occipito-temporal cortex that respond preferentially to faces and other objects. The extent to which these patterns of activation are modulated by bottom-up or top-down mechanisms is currently unknown. We combined fMRI and dynamic causal modelling to(More)
The morphology of the human cortex varies remarkably across individuals, regardless of overall brain size. It is currently unclear whether related cortical regions covary in gray matter density, as a result of mutually trophic influences or common experience-related plasticity. We acquired a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan from 172 subjects and(More)
Studies of semantic impairment arising from brain disease suggest that the anterior temporal lobes are critical for semantic abilities in humans; yet activation of these regions is rarely reported in functional imaging studies of healthy controls performing semantic tasks. Here, we combined neuropsychological and PET functional imaging data to show that(More)
Several studies report that patients with schizophrenia who experience auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) tend to misidentify their own speech as that of somebody else. We tested the hypothesis that this tendency is associated with poor functional integration within the network of regions that mediate the evaluation of speech. Using functional magnetic(More)
Standard univariate analysis of neuroimaging data has revealed a host of neuroanatomical and functional differences between healthy individuals and patients suffering a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Significant only at group level however these findings have had limited clinical translation, and recent attention has turned toward(More)
A surprising discovery in recent years is that the structure of the adult human brain changes when a new cognitive or motor skill is learned. This effect is seen as a change in local gray or white matter density that correlates with behavioral measures. Critically, however, the cognitive and anatomical mechanisms underlying these learning-related structural(More)
Recent neuroimaging studies have reported deficits in functional integration between prefrontal cortex and the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. It is unclear whether these alterations are a consequence of chronic illness or its treatment, and whether they are also evident in non-psychotic subjects at increased risk of the disorder. We addressed these(More)
Brain imaging studies of adults with psychopathy have identified structural and functional abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal regions that are involved in emotion recognition, decision-making, morality and empathy. Among children with conduct problems, a small subgroup presents callous-unemotional traits thought to be antecedents of psychopathy. No(More)
We used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to explore the neural correlates of semantic relevance in 12 healthy participants performing a picture-naming task. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that category effects typically found in functional imaging can be partly explained in terms of different semantic relevance for animals and artefacts. We(More)