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There is a growing appreciation of the importance of nonlinearities in evoked responses in fMRI, particularly with the advent of event-related fMRI. These nonlinearities are commonly expressed as interactions among stimuli that can lead to the suppression and increased latency of responses to a stimulus that are incurred by a preceding stimulus. We have(More)
Humans have a unique ability to learn more than one language--a skill that is thought to be mediated by functional (rather than structural) plastic changes in the brain. Here we show that learning a second language increases the density of grey matter in the left inferior parietal cortex and that the degree of structural reorganization in this region is(More)
The brain appears to adhere to two fundamental principles of functional organisation, functional integration and functional specialisation, where the integration within and among specialised areas is mediated by effective connectivity. In this paper, we review two different approaches to modelling effective connectivity from fMRI data, structural equation(More)
In recent years, a whole-brain unbiased objective technique, known as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), has been developed to characterise brain differences in vivo using structural magnetic resonance images. The present review provides a brief description of VBM and then focuses on exemplar applications in healthy and diseased subjects. The procedure involves(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified category-selective regions in ventral occipito-temporal cortex that respond preferentially to faces and other objects. The extent to which these patterns of activation are modulated by bottom-up or top-down mechanisms is currently unknown. We combined fMRI and dynamic causal modelling to(More)
The morphology of the human cortex varies remarkably across individuals, regardless of overall brain size. It is currently unclear whether related cortical regions covary in gray matter density, as a result of mutually trophic influences or common experience-related plasticity. We acquired a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan from 172 subjects and(More)
Studies of semantic impairment arising from brain disease suggest that the anterior temporal lobes are critical for semantic abilities in humans; yet activation of these regions is rarely reported in functional imaging studies of healthy controls performing semantic tasks. Here, we combined neuropsychological and PET functional imaging data to show that(More)
Standard univariate analysis of neuroimaging data has revealed a host of neuroanatomical and functional differences between healthy individuals and patients suffering a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Significant only at group level however these findings have had limited clinical translation, and recent attention has turned toward(More)
Brain imaging studies of adults with psychopathy have identified structural and functional abnormalities in limbic and prefrontal regions that are involved in emotion recognition, decision-making, morality and empathy. Among children with conduct problems, a small subgroup presents callous-unemotional traits thought to be antecedents of psychopathy. No(More)