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BACKGROUND & AIMS Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) around the world has increased over the past 20 years due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains, increased use and misuse of antibiotics, and the increase of susceptible at-risk populations. Treatments currently available for CDI are inadequate to impede the increasing(More)
OBJECTIVES These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe. METHODS The guideline development group formulated questions, identified data, and formulated recommendations. The latter were graded with the Muir Gray system and, in parallel, with the Grading of Recommendations,(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a chronic, rare disorder confined to the lung, which is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchyma infiltrates on chest radiography, and iron-deficiency anemia. Diagnosis may be difficult and the clinical course may be widely variable. Here, we describe an 8-year-old boy whose(More)
Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide in the past two decades. A principal function of the gut microbiota is to protect the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Increasingly, the gut microbiota have been shown to influence susceptibility to other genetic and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To critically appraise evidence on probiotic use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggested that probiotics are effective in primary and secondary prevention of gastroenteritis and its treatment. Selected Lactobacillus strains had a(More)
Nutrition has a key role in the modulation of the developing intestine in early infancy, and nutrients are able to modulate several intestinal functions including nutrient absorption, ion transport, cell growth and differentiation, motility and immunomodulation. Such modulation is exerted in part through a direct interaction between a single nutrient and(More)
BACKGROUND To investigate the rates of pneumococcal and influenza vaccinations and their determinants in children with chronic medical conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS Children with HIV infection, cystic fibrosis, liver transplantation and diabetes mellitus were enrolled. Physicians of regional Reference Centres for each condition, primary care(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the applicability and efficacy of guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) as used by pediatricians. STUDY DESIGN This was a national, open, randomized, controlled intervention trial. The intervention consisted of a 2-hour course based on the guidelines for management of AGE. Seventy-five randomly selected primary(More)