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BACKGROUND & AIMS Intestinal inflammation is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Administration of probiotics can reduce intestinal inflammation and the incidence of pulmonary exacerbations. We investigated the composition of intestinal microbiota in children with CF and analyzed its relationship with intestinal inflammation. We also investigated the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) around the world has increased over the past 20 years due to the emergence of hypervirulent strains, increased use and misuse of antibiotics, and the increase of susceptible at-risk populations. Treatments currently available for CDI are inadequate to impede the increasing(More)
Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and(More)
OBJECTIVES These guidelines update and extend evidence-based indications for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis in Europe. METHODS The guideline development group formulated questions, identified data, and formulated recommendations. The latter were graded with the Muir Gray system and, in parallel, with the Grading of Recommendations,(More)
Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a chronic, rare disorder confined to the lung, which is commonly characterized by the triad of recurrent hemoptysis, diffuse parenchyma infiltrates on chest radiography, and iron-deficiency anemia. Diagnosis may be difficult and the clinical course may be widely variable. Here, we describe an 8-year-old boy whose(More)
BACKGROUND GH-deficient (GHD) children have reduced left ventricular (LV) mass, but impairment of cardiac function has never been documented. AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of GHD and GH therapy on cardiac function using load-dependent and load-independent indices of myocardial contractility. PATIENTS AND METHODS Echocardiography was(More)
An association between asthma and gastro-esophageal reflux (GER) is well recognized but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The authors suggest that could exist an association between GER and upper airways hyperreactivity and this association could represents the mechanism underlying the lower esophageal sphincter releasing, that determine the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased worldwide in the past two decades. A principal function of the gut microbiota is to protect the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Increasingly, the gut microbiota have been shown to influence susceptibility to other genetic and(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To critically appraise evidence on probiotic use for prevention and treatment of diarrhea in children and adults. RECENT FINDINGS Several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses suggested that probiotics are effective in primary and secondary prevention of gastroenteritis and its treatment. Selected Lactobacillus strains had a(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute diarrhea remains a major problem in children and is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. While vaccination against rotavirus could reduce the burden of the disease, the persistent impact of intestinal infections requires effective treatment in adjunct to oral rehydration solutions, to reduce the severity and(More)