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This study examined the in vitro effects of polymyxin B, tigecycline, and rifampin combinations on 16 isolates of extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, including four polymyxin-resistant strains. In vitro synergy was demonstrated in 19 (40%) of a possible 48 isolate-antibiotic combinations by time-kill methods, 8 (17%) by checkerboard methods,(More)
Although a growing number of studies have found a relationship between delayed appropriate antibiotic therapy and mortality, few have attempted to quantify the temporal association between delayed appropriate antibiotic therapy and mortality. This study was designed to measure the elapsed time associated with an increased risk of 30-day mortality among(More)
INTRODUCTION Polymyxins have become the drug of choice for treatment of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli infections in Singapore, simply because these pathogens are only susceptible to either aminoglycosides and polymyxins, or polymyxins only. Furthermore, there is no new antibiotic in the pipeline that targets these difficult-to-treat infections.(More)
Whilst studies have shown that antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) can effectively reduce antibiotic utilisation, cost of care and even antimicrobial resistance rates, ASPs should avoid the perception that the goal is primarily to reduce antibiotic purchases and costs, instead of focusing on improving the quality of care. In addition, to address the(More)
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Klebsiella pneumoniae is an emerging pathogen in Singapore. With limited therapeutic options available, combination antibiotics may be the only viable option. In this study, we aimed to elucidate effective antibiotic combinations against XDR K. pneumoniae isolates. Six NDM-1-producing and two OXA-181-producing K. pneumoniae(More)
Despite limited data, polymyxin B (PB) is increasingly used clinically as the last therapeutic option for multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacterial infections. We examined the in vitro pharmacodynamics of PB against four strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clonal relatedness of the strains was assessed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA.(More)
Data comparing the treatment outcomes of the two most frequently recommended empirical antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)--combination therapy with an extended-spectrum beta-lactam and a macrolide (BL+M) or fluoroquinolone (F) monotherapy--for patients with severe CAP are sparse. The purpose of this study was to compare empirical(More)
Twenty-one patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia were treated with nebulized polymyxin E (colistin). Overall clinical and microbiological response rates were 57.1% and 85.7%, respectively. Nebulized colistin may be reasonably efficacious and safe for treatment of MDR pneumonia. Its role in(More)
Polymyxin B is increasingly used clinically for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, despite very limited understanding of its disposition in humans. The disposition of intravenous polymyxin B1 in 9 adult patients was characterized. Random blood samples (specifically timed in relation to the dose administered) were obtained, and(More)
OBJECTIVE Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CR-AB) is an emerging cause of nosocomial infections worldwide. Combination therapy may be the only viable option until new antibiotics become available. The objective of this study is to identify potential antimicrobial combinations against CR-AB isolated from our local hospitals. METHODS AB(More)