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Heart failure is associated with increased myocardial expression of TNF-alpha. However, the role of TNF-alpha in the development of heart failure is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of TNF-alpha to myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in a unique dog model of heart failure(More)
The cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been causally linked to left ventricular (LV) remodeling, but the molecular basis for this effect is unknown. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in cardiac remodeling and can be regulated by TNF-alpha. This study tested the central hypothesis that administration of a TNF-alpha blocking(More)
BACKGROUND Fetal heart development occurs by hyperplasia as myocytes lose the capacity to proliferate at birth. This potential for cell division may have application in altering fetal growth patterns in congenital cardiac malformations, but it is not known whether the proliferative activity can be modified by intrauterine surgical manipulation. The purpose(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) blockade reduces vascular oxidative stress but whether myocardial oxidative stress represents a mechanism for the beneficial effect of AT(1)R blockade in heart failure is unclear. Furthermore, the impact of AT(1)R blockade on the expression of angiotensin II receptors in heart failure has not(More)
Rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) is a well-established animal model of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, this model is limited by a high mortality rate and severe heart failure. The purpose of our study was to assess a new canine model of inducible AF. We performed acute, short-term, simultaneous atrioventricular pacing (SAVP) and RVP (in random order) in 14(More)
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that persistent myocardial apoptosis contributes to progression of heart failure in a canine model of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Dogs were paced at 250 beats per minute for 1 week (n=9), 3 weeks (n=14) and 4 weeks (n=14) with normal dogs served as controls (n=12). Myocardial apoptosis was assessed by(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial structural remodeling occurs in evolving heart failure (HF) and is an important substrate for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in extracellular remodeling, and recent studies have demonstrated increased atrial MMP activity in HF. Whether increased MMP activity directly(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia which contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Atrial remodeling is a key substrate for the development of AF in HF. However, experimental models that study AF in the setting of HF have important limitations. We evaluated a new dog model of atrial remodeling and(More)