Andrea Hofmann

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A double-blind study was performed comparing 5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) p.o., 50 mg codeine p.o., and placebo in a patient with spasticity and pain due to spinal cord injury. The three conditions were applied 18 times each in a randomized and balanced order. Delta-9-THC and codeine both had an analgesic effect in comparison with placebo. Only(More)
Pupil size is regulated exclusively by the autonomic nervous system, and in darkness is proportional to the level of central sympathetic tone. Spontaneous pupillary movements, while at rest in darkness and quiet, were recorded for a period of 11 min, using infrared video pupillography. Thirteen young adults took part in a 30-h experiment lasting from 08.00(More)
BACKGROUND Lithium is a first-line treatment in bipolar disorder, but individual response is variable. Previous studies have suggested that lithium response is a heritable trait. However, no genetic markers of treatment response have been reproducibly identified. METHODS Here, we report the results of a genome-wide association study of lithium response in(More)
Current perspectives on the molecular underpinnings of major depressive disorder (MDD) posit a mechanistic role of epigenetic DNA modifications in mediating the interaction between environmental risk factors and a genetic predisposition. However, conclusive evidence for differential methylation signatures in the brain's epigenome of MDD patients as compared(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 1%. Molecular genetic studies have identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the disease pathways remain largely unknown. Accumulating evidence suggests that microRNAs, a class of small noncoding RNAs, contribute to basic mechanisms(More)
Nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) are the most frequent subphenotypes of orofacial clefts. A common syndromic form of orofacial clefting is Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) where individuals have CL/P or CPO, often but not always associated with lower lip pits. Recently, ∼5% of VWS-affected(More)
We simultaneously investigated the genetic landscape of ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis to investigate pleiotropy and the relationship between these clinically related diseases. Using high-density genotype data from more than 86,000 individuals of European ancestry, we identified 244(More)
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a genetically complex mental illness characterized by severe oscillations of mood and behaviour. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several risk loci that together account for a small portion of the heritability. To identify additional risk loci, we performed a two-stage meta-analysis of >9 million genetic(More)
The adjuvant effects of various lipopeptides and recombinant chicken interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on the humoral immune response of laying hens was investigated in four immunization studies. We used the lipopeptide Pam3Cys-Ser-(Lys)4 (PCSL), the conjugate P-Th1 consisting of the lipopeptide P3CS and the T-helper epitope Th1 (FISEAIIHVLHSRHPG), and the(More)
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we(More)