Andrea Harrer

Learn More
Stroke is the third leading cause of death with an increasing prevalence. In previous years many important achievements and new therapeutic strategies have been established. This article provides an overview on recent developments and is an update to the article of Green et al. that was published in 2004. As this article is a comprehensive review we divided(More)
Strongly decreased leucocyte counts and a reduced CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of natalizumab (NZB)-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may have implications on central nervous (CNS) immune surveillance. With regard to NZB-associated progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, we aimed at delineating a relationship between(More)
OBJECTIVE To report about a possible association between fingolimod treatment and tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDL) as seen in a patient developing repeated TDL on continued fingolimod therapy. METHODS We performed serial clinical and radiologic assessments and immunophenotyping of blood and CSF immune cells. We also present a literature review(More)
BACKGROUND Several alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain why some proteins are able to induce a T(H)2-biased and IgE-mediated immune response. These include specific interactions with receptors of the innate immune system, proteolytic activities, allergen-associated carbohydrate structures, and intrinsic structural determinants. OBJECTIVES(More)
Recent evidence exists that the expression of the Leu-3/T4 antigen is not restricted to thymus-derived lymphocytes but can also be detected on mononuclear phagocytes and epidermal Langerhans cells (LC). When searching for the presence of Leu-3/T4 antigen-bearing cells in tissue sections of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic skin disorders, we observed(More)
Recently, the disappearance of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a few natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported. This is interesting since CSF-restricted OCB are believed to persist in MS. We pooled CSF data from 14 MS centers to obtain an adequate sample size for investigating the suspected(More)
BACKGROUND Natalizumab is the first monoclonal antibody therapy approved for multiple sclerosis (MS). Its therapeutic mechanism is the blockade of the α4-integrin subunit of the adhesion molecule (AM) very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4), which leads to an inhibition of immune cell extravasation into the central nervous system (CNS). METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Hypersensitivity reactions against nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like diclofenac (DF) can manifest as Type I-like allergic reactions including systemic anaphylaxis. However, except for isolated case studies experimental evidence for an IgE-mediated pathomechanism of DF hypersensitivity is lacking. In this study we aimed to(More)
Natalizumab interferes with immune cell migration into the central nervous system via blocking the alpha-4 subunit of very-late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4). Occurrence of rare but serious progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy during prolonged natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) calls for a more detailed understanding of potential coeffects.(More)
Stroke still remains a major healthcare problem. The growing understanding of the mechanism of cell death in ischemia leads to new approaches in stroke treatment. The aim of neuroprotection is to reduce the post-stroke impairment and the overall costs that are accompanied in patients with severe disability. Despite encouraging data from experimental animal(More)