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Stroke is the third leading cause of death with an increasing prevalence. In previous years many important achievements and new therapeutic strategies have been established. This article provides an overview on recent developments and is an update to the article of Green et al. that was published in 2004. As this article is a comprehensive review we divided(More)
BACKGROUND Several alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain why some proteins are able to induce a T(H)2-biased and IgE-mediated immune response. These include specific interactions with receptors of the innate immune system, proteolytic activities, allergen-associated carbohydrate structures, and intrinsic structural determinants. OBJECTIVES(More)
Recent evidence exists that the expression of the Leu-3/T4 antigen is not restricted to thymus-derived lymphocytes but can also be detected on mononuclear phagocytes and epidermal Langerhans cells (LC). When searching for the presence of Leu-3/T4 antigen-bearing cells in tissue sections of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic skin disorders, we observed(More)
Recently, the disappearance of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a few natalizumab-treated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported. This is interesting since CSF-restricted OCB are believed to persist in MS. We pooled CSF data from 14 MS centers to obtain an adequate sample size for investigating the suspected(More)
OBJECTIVE To report about a possible association between fingolimod treatment and tumefactive demyelinating lesions (TDL) as seen in a patient developing repeated TDL on continued fingolimod therapy. METHODS We performed serial clinical and radiologic assessments and immunophenotyping of blood and CSF immune cells. We also present a literature review(More)
Stroke still remains a major healthcare problem. The growing understanding of the mechanism of cell death in ischemia leads to new approaches in stroke treatment. The aim of neuroprotection is to reduce the post-stroke impairment and the overall costs that are accompanied in patients with severe disability. Despite encouraging data from experimental animal(More)
SCOPE Celery represents a relevant cross-reactive food allergen source in the adult population. As the currently known allergens are not typical elicitors of severe symptoms, we aimed to identify and characterize a non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP). METHODS AND RESULTS MS and cDNA cloning were applied to obtain the full-length sequence of a(More)
Strongly decreased leucocyte counts and a reduced CD4/CD8 T cell ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of natalizumab (NZB)-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) patients may have implications on central nervous (CNS) immune surveillance. With regard to NZB-associated progressive multi-focal leucoencephalopathy, we aimed at delineating a relationship between(More)
Natalizumab interferes with immune cell migration into the central nervous system via blocking the alpha-4 subunit of very-late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4). Occurrence of rare but serious progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy during prolonged natalizumab therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS) calls for a more detailed understanding of potential coeffects.(More)
Natalizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha-4 integrin subunit of very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4). Natalizumab neutralizing antibodies (NAB) have been found to significantly reduce beneficial effects of natalizumab treatment in multiple sclerosis. We investigated interactions of NAB with natalizumab by serial(More)