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BACKGROUND The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical(More)
An epidemiological survey for the monitoring of bovine tuberculosis transmission was carried out in western Liguria, a region in northern Italy. Fifteen Mycobacterium bovis strains were isolated from 63 wild boar samples (62 from mandibular lymph nodes and 1 from a liver specimen). Sixteen mediastinal lymph nodes of 16 head of cattle were collected, and 15(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate intrathecal immune activation parameters and HIV-RNA in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) of advanced naïve HIV-infected patients and to evaluate their dynamics before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV RNA, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6,(More)
The mean predicted decrease of 0.3-0.4 pH units in the global surface ocean by the end of the century has prompted urgent research to assess the potential effects of ocean acidification on the marine environment, with strong emphasis on calcifying organisms. Among them, the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) is expected to be particularly(More)
Our results show that impairment of the gastrointestinal tracts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients is present in the early phases of HIV disease. This impairment is associated with alterations in gut microbiota and intestinal inflammatory parameters. These findings support the hypothesis that alterations at the gastrointestinal-tract(More)
Patients with inefficient CD4+ T-cell recovery on virogically suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy constitute a major clinical hurdle given the threat of HIV/AIDS disease progression. We show heightened circulating lipopolysaccharide associated with plasma enterobacterial DNA and highly activated Ki67+CD4+CD8+ in 24 immunologic-nonresponders(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), amongst HIV-infected patients, spread from one hospital in Milan to another. DESIGN Descriptive epidemiological investigation and molecular typing. METHODS All cases identified by intensive case-finding were described in terms of clinical characteristics, previous nosocomial(More)
This analysis involves 22 patients with diagnosed symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Neurologic symptoms were present in 11 patients, ranging from severe and persistent headache to clinical signs suggestive of meningitis. A strong correlation between neurological symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load was found. The mean(More)
In geographical areas with a low incidence of tuberculosis, recurrent tuberculosis is generally due to reactivation of the disease. However, the relative contribution of tuberculosis reinfection increases in parallel with the incidence of disease and is likely to depend on the epidemiological context: factors such as the spread of multidrug resistance,(More)