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The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical laboratory,(More)
An epidemiological survey for the monitoring of bovine tuberculosis transmission was carried out in western Liguria, a region in northern Italy. Fifteen Mycobacterium bovis strains were isolated from 63 wild boar samples (62 from mandibular lymph nodes and 1 from a liver specimen). Sixteen mediastinal lymph nodes of 16 head of cattle were collected, and 15(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate intrathecal immune activation parameters and HIV-RNA in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) of advanced naïve HIV-infected patients and to evaluate their dynamics before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV RNA, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6,(More)
Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1-infected adults. In a(More)
The annual gonad development of a shallow (20 m depth) population of the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis was found to be closely synchronized with that of a deep (60 m depth) population, but differences were observed in the gonadal output, with the shallow population producing more and larger sexual products. Lipid content in the shallow(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse changes in cytokine production in vitro and T-lymphocyte immunophenotype in the early phases of HIV-1 infection. DESIGN AND METHODS Mitogen-stimulated in vitro production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 (type 1 cytokines), IL-4, and IL-10 (type 2 cytokines) and surface expression of activation and non-activation markers(More)
Patients with inefficient CD4+ T-cell recovery on virogically suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy constitute a major clinical hurdle given the threat of HIV/AIDS disease progression. We show heightened circulating lipopolysaccharide associated with plasma enterobacterial DNA and highly activated Ki67+CD4+CD8+ in 24 immunologic-nonresponders(More)
BACKGROUND Persistently reduced CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts in the face of undetectable HIV viremia are seen in a sizable percentage of HIV-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). We analyzed the immune correlates of this phenomenon. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-seven HIV-infected patients with undetectable viremia (<50 copies/microl)(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe an outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), amongst HIV-infected patients, spread from one hospital in Milan to another. DESIGN Descriptive epidemiological investigation and molecular typing. METHODS All cases identified by intensive case-finding were described in terms of clinical characteristics, previous nosocomial(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence and factors associated with an increased risk of renal dysfunction in HIV-infected patients receiving or not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been poorly evaluated in observational settings. METHODS Patients in the ICONA Foundation cohort with at least two creatinine values available while still ART-naïve were enrolled(More)