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BACKGROUND The Direct Repeat locus of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) is a member of the CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) sequences family. Spoligotyping is the widely used PCR-based reverse-hybridization blotting technique that assays the genetic diversity of this locus and is useful both for clinical(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill) study was to verify the effect of a reduced number of pills on adherence and quality of life (QoL) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN Prospective, multicenter, study. METHODS Patients chronically treated with emtricitabine (FTC) + tenofovir (TDF) +(More)
Intestinal mucosal immune system is an early target for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, resulting in CD4(+) T-cell depletion, deterioration of gut lining, and fecal microbiota composition. We evaluated the effects of a prebiotic oligosaccharide mixture in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive HIV-1-infected adults. In a(More)
We evaluated the clinical usefulness of spoligotyping, a polymerase chain reaction-based method for simultaneous detection and typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, with acid-fast bacilli-positive slides from clinical specimens or mycobacterial cultures. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 95% for the detection of M. tuberculosis and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate intrathecal immune activation parameters and HIV-RNA in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) of advanced naïve HIV-infected patients and to evaluate their dynamics before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV RNA, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6,(More)
Of diagnosis Of birth Radiologic cavities, thorax † No. treatment periods ‡ Drugs received § 248 110 – 28 Improved *XDR TB, extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis; –, not achieved. All patients were HIV seronegative. †At time of XDR TB diagnosis. ‡Treatment periods >30 d.
Mechanisms by which HIV affects the thymus are multiple and only partially known, and the role of thymic dysfunction in HIV/AIDS immunopathogenesis remains poorly understood. To evaluate the effects of HIV infection on intra-thymic precursors of T cells in HIV-infected adults, we conducted a detailed immunophenotypic study of thymic tissue isolated from 7(More)
Tat is a key HIV-1 virulence factor, which plays pivotal roles in virus gene expression, replication, transmission and disease progression. After release, extracellular Tat accumulates in tissues and exerts effects on both the virus and the immune system, promoting immune activation and virus spreading while disabling the host immune defense. In particular,(More)
The phase II multicenter, randomized, open label, therapeutic trial (ISS T-002, Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00751595) was aimed at evaluating the immunogenicity and the safety of the biologically active HIV-1 Tat protein administered at 7.5 or 30 μg, given 3 or 5 times monthly, and at exploring immunological and virological disease biomarkers. The study duration(More)
OBJECTIVES It is still debated if pre-existing minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants (MVs) affect the virological outcomes of first-line NNRTI-containing ART. METHODS This Europe-wide case-control study included ART-naive subjects infected with drug-susceptible HIV-1 as revealed by population sequencing, who achieved virological suppression on first-line(More)