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Chromatin modifications are sensitive to environmental and nutritional stimuli. Abnormalities in epigenetic regulation are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes that are often linked with defects in oxidative metabolism. Here, we evaluated the potential of class-specific synthetic inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs),(More)
UNLABELLED The transcription of the gene (CYP7A1) encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in cholesterol homeostasis, is repressed by bile acids via multiple mechanisms involving members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we describe a regulatory mechanism that can be exploited for modulating bile acid synthesis. By dissecting the(More)
NAD(+)-dependent sirtuin deacetylases have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for treatment of human illnesses such as cancer, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. The benefits of sirtuin modulation by small molecules have been demonstrated for these diseases. In contrast to the discovery of inhibitors of SIRT1, -2, and -3, only(More)
Phenotypic screening is making a comeback in drug discovery as the maturation of chemical proteomics methods has facilitated target identification for bioactive small molecules. A limitation of these approaches is that time-consuming genetic methods or other means are often required to determine the biologically relevant target (or targets) from among(More)
A number of recent studies revealed that epigenetic modifications play a central role in the regulation of lipid and of other metabolic pathways such as cholesterol homeostasis, bile acid synthesis, glucose and energy metabolism. Epigenetics refers to aspects of genome functions regulated in a DNA sequence-independent fashion. Chromatin structure is(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. They are activated by natural ligands, such as fatty acids, and are also targets of synthetic antidiabetic and hypolipidemic drugs. By using cell-based reporter assays, we studied the transactivation activity of two enantiomeric(More)
Obesity develops when energy intake chronically exceeds energy expenditure. Because brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy in the form of heat, increasing energy expenditure by augmenting BAT-mediated thermogenesis may represent an approach to counter obesity and its complications. The ability of BAT to dissipate energy is dependent on expression of(More)
Cholesterol is required in the brain for synaptogenesis and its turnover is critical for cerebral functions. Several proteins involved in cholesterol handling and metabolism are transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and beta. Sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme involved in cholesterol(More)
Advances in the synthesis and screening of small-molecule libraries have accelerated the discovery of chemical probes for studying biological processes. Still, only a small fraction of the human proteome has chemical ligands. Here, we describe a platform that marries fragment-based ligand discovery with quantitative chemical proteomics to map thousands of(More)
Adipose tissue renewal and obesity-driven expansion of fat cell number are dependent on proliferation and differentiation of adipose progenitors that reside in the vasculature that develops in coordination with adipose depots. The transcriptional events that regulate commitment of progenitors to the adipose lineage are poorly understood. Because expression(More)