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The crucial role played by the myofibroblast in wound healing and pathological organ remodeling is well established; the general mechanisms of extracellular matrix synthesis and of tension production by this cell have been amply clarified. This review discusses the pattern of myofibroblast accumulation and fibrosis evolution during lung and liver fibrosis(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The ligand-dependent transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is expressed in hepatic stellate cells (HSC), and its transcriptional activity is reduced during cell transdifferentiation in culture. PPARgamma transcriptional activation decreases platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation and(More)
A genome-wide association screen for primary biliary cirrhosis risk alleles was performed in an Italian cohort. The results from the Italian cohort replicated IL12A and IL12RB associations, and a combined meta-analysis using a Canadian dataset identified newly associated loci at SPIB (P = 7.9 x 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) = 1.46), IRF5-TNPO3 (P = 2.8 x(More)
During liver injury, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) acquire a myofibroblast-like phenotype associated with reduction of lipid droplets, increased collagen synthesis, and proliferation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) regulates adipocyte differentiation and controls gene transcription in response to various activators including(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to assess short- and long-term prognosis of syncope and associated risk factors. BACKGROUND Syncope is a common clinical event, but our knowledge of its short-term outcome is largely incomplete. Further, it is unknown whether hospital admission might positively affect a patient's syncope prognosis. METHODS We screened 2,775(More)
Experimental evidence indicates that the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes is often associated with the development of liver fibrosis. We have studied the effect of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) on collagen synthesis by human hepatic stellate cells (HSC), the major source of collagen in the liver, in a coculture system. Lipid(More)
Fatty acids are ligands for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). Fatty acid levels are increased in liver during the metabolism of ethanol and might be expected to activate PPAR alpha. However, ethanol inhibited PPAR alpha activation of a reporter gene in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells expressing alcohol-metabolizing enzymes but not in(More)
Experimental evidence indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the development of hepatic fibrosis; they induce hepatic stellate cells (HSC) proliferation and collagen synthesis. To address the role of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 in promoting HSC proliferation during hepatic injury, we investigated whether oxidative stress modulates(More)
Peroxisome-proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor of central importance in energy homeostasis and inflammation. Recent experimental pieces of evidence demonstrate that PPARγ is implicated in the oxidative stress response, an imbalance between antithetic prooxidation and antioxidation forces that may lead the cell to apoptotic or(More)
The liver has long been known to respond to exposure to certain chemicals with hyperplasia and proliferation of the peroxisomal compartment. This response is now known to be mediated by specific receptors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were cloned 10 years ago, and in that interval, have been found to serve as receptors for a(More)