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In mammals, the function of the reproductive system is dependent on the availability of energy in the environment. It is well established that acute modifications of energy balance modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In several species, fasting and caloric restriction have been shown to cause the suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone(More)
OBJECTIVES Ageing in men is associated with a gradual decline in serum testosterone levels and a concomitant loss of muscle mass, accumulation of central adiposity, impaired mobility and increased risk of bone fractures. Whether androgen treatment might be beneficial in these subjects is still under debate. We have carried out a systematic review of(More)
Leptin circulates in plasma at concentrations that parallel the amount of fat reserves. In obese males, androgen levels decline in proportion to the degree of obesity. Recently, we have shown that in rodent Leydig cells leptin inhibits hCG-stimulated testosterone (T) production via a functional leptin receptor isoform; others have found that leptin inhibits(More)
BACKGROUND Pegvisomant (PEGV) is widely used, alone or with somatostatin analogs (SSA), for GH-secreting pituitary tumors poorly controlled by SSAs alone. No information is available on specific indications for or relative efficacies of PEGV+SSA versus PEGV monotherapy. Aim of our study was to characterize real-life clinical use of PEGV vs. PEGV+SSA for(More)
Cultured rat Leydig cells secreted considerable amounts of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF). A major stimulus for Leydig cell-derived CRF was the trophic hormone LH/hCG, which released the peptide in a dose dependent fashion. Incubation of Leydig cells with a CRF antagonist revealed tonic suppression of basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone production(More)
The galactose elimination capacity, a measure of the functional liver cell mass, and liver volume were measured in 50 normal subjects of five different age groups (less than 50, 51 to 60, 61 to 70, 71 to 80 and greater than 81 years). The volume of the liver was evaluated by ultrasonography. All subjects had normal routine liver function tests and no(More)
Defects in spermatogenesis have been found associated with deletions of different portions of Y chromosome long arm (Yq), suggesting the presence of the azoospermia factor in the control of spermatogenesis. We studied 67 men with idiopathic azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia, cytogenetically normal, for the presence of microdeletions on Yq chromosome.(More)
BACKGROUND Leptin is the protein product of the obese gene, known to play an important role in body energy balance. The leptin receptor exists in numerous isoforms, the long isoform being the major form involved in signal transduction. Leptin expression has recently been demonstrated in the human pituitary, both in normal tissue and in pituitary adenomas.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Severe hypoglycemia is not rare in diabetes and markedly impacts on health resource use. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients attending emergency departments (EDs) following a severe episode of hypoglycemia, the factors associated with the management of events and the final outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS We carried out a(More)