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Hybridization is frequent in many organismal groups, but its role in adaptation is poorly understood. In sunflowers, species found in the most extreme habitats are ancient hybrids, and new gene combinations generated by hybridization are speculated to have contributed to ecological divergence. This possibility was tested through phenotypic and genomic(More)
The recurrent origin of diploid hybrid species is theoretically improbable because of the enormous diversity of hybrid genotypes generated by recombination. Recent greenhouse experiments, however, indicate that the genomic composition of hybrid lineages is shaped in part by deterministic forces, and that recurrent diploid hybrid speciation may be more(More)
Diploid hybrid lineages often are ecologically distinct from their parental species. However, it is unclear whether this niche divergence is typically achieved via hybrid intermediacy, a mixture of parental traits, and/or the evolution of extreme (transgressive) morphological and ecophysiological features. Here we compare an extensively studied hybrid(More)
Solanum, with approximately 1,500 species, is the largest genus in the Solanaceae and includes economically important species such as the tomato, potato, and eggplant. In part due to its large size and tropical center of diversity, resolving evolutionary relationships across Solanum as a whole has been challenging. In order to identify major clades within(More)
A cladistic analysis of sequences from the chloroplast gene rbcL was used to determine the systematic affinities of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophylleaceae. This analysis rejects close relationships of Rhizophoraceae with Celastraceae or Elaeocarpaceae, suggested previously, and identifies Erythroxylaceae as sister group within the Malpighiales, supported by(More)
Most land plant plastomes contain two copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) that promote high-frequency homologous recombination to generate isomeric genomic forms. Among conifer plastomes, this canonical IR is highly reduced in Pinaceae and completely lost from cupressophytes. However, both lineages have acquired short, novel IRs, some of which also(More)
A new species of conifer was recently discovered in northern Vietnam. In a preliminary phylogenetic analysis of morphological data a possible sister species, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach, was identified; however, because of the presumed phylogenetic remoteness of these two species to the remainder of the Cupressaceae, a new(More)
Homoploid hybrid speciation has traditionally been considered a rare event, dependent on the establishment of both a novel, balanced genotype and reproductive isolating barriers between the new species and its progenitors. However, more recent studies have shown that synthetic hybrids converge toward the chromosomal structure of natural hybrids after only a(More)
The primary requirement for a new diploid species to arise via hybridization is ecological divergence from its parental species. Ecological divergence protects the nascent hybrid species from competition with its progenitor species and may contribute to reproductive isolation. However, the means by which hybridization might facilitate the necessary adaptive(More)
LDL mediates transfection with plasmid DNA in a variety of cell types in vitro and in several tissues in vivo in the rat. The transfection capacity of LDL is based on apo B100, as arginine/lysine clusters, suggestive of nucleic acid-binding domains and nuclear localization signal sequences, are present throughout the molecule. Apo E may also contribute to(More)