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The evaluation procedure of a new laser-cooled caesium fountain primary frequency standard developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is described. The new standard, NIST-F1, is described in some detail and typical operational parameters are discussed. Systematic frequency biases for which corrections are made – second-order… (More)
—The voltage and current offsets of two typical precision operational amplifiers (OPAs) with BJT and FET input, respectively , were continuously measured for two years. The paper presents the experiment, explains the method of data analysis, and discusses the results. The long-term stability turns out to be limited mainly by random walk processes.