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Horizontal endosymbiont transmission in hydrothermal vent tubeworms
The data indicate that the bacterial symbionts colonize the developing tube of the settled larvae and enter the host through the skin, a process that continues through the early juvenile stages during which the trophosome is established from mesodermal tissue.
“Candidatus Thiobios zoothamnicoli,” an Ectosymbiotic Bacterium Covering the Giant Marine Ciliate Zoothamnium niveum
Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that the ectosymbiont of Z. niveum belongs to only one pleomorphic phylotype.
Free-Living Tube Worm Endosymbionts Found at Deep-Sea Vents
These findings support environmental transmission as a means of symbiont acquisition for deep-sea tube worms.
Attachment mechanism in a highly specific association between ectosymbiotic bacteria and marine nematodes
It is shown that the recognition and binding of the environmentally transmitted symbionts in the 2 Laxus species, which harbor only 1 phylotype of symbiotic γ-proteobacterium each, is most probably mediated through a yet unknown mannose/rhamnose-specific lectin of host origin.
Giant tubeworms
Thiotrophic bacterial symbiont induces polyphenism in giant ciliate host Zoothamnium niveum
It is proposed that despite a high fitness loss when aposymbiotic, the ciliate has retained a facultative life style and may use the option to live without its symbiont to overcome spatial and temporal shortage of sulphide in nature.