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With a standard set of primers directed toward conserved regions, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates. Amplification and direct sequencing were possible using unpurified mtDNA from nanogram samples of fresh(More)
Mitochondrial DNA was purified from four species of higher primates (Guinea baboon, rhesus macaque, guenon, and human) and digested with 11 restriction endonucleases. A cleavage map was constructed for the mitochondrial DNA of each species. Comparison of the maps, aligned with respect to the origin and direction of DNA replication, revealed that the species(More)
Mitochondrial DNAs from 147 people, drawn from five geographic populations have been analysed by restriction mapping. All these mitochondrial DNAs stem from one woman who is postulated to have lived about 200,000 years ago, probably in Africa. All the populations examined except the African population have multiple origins, implying that each area was(More)
The proposal that all mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) types in contemporary humans stem from a common ancestor present in an African population some 200,000 years ago has attracted much attention. To study this proposal further, two hypervariable segments of mtDNA were sequenced from 189 people of diverse geographic origin, including 121 native Africans.(More)
Lake Victoria, together with its satellite lakes, harbours roughly 200 endemic forms of cichlid fishes that are classified as 'haplochromines' and yet the lake system is less than a million years old. This 'flock' has attracted attention because of the possibility that it evolved within the lake from one ancestral species and that biologists are thus(More)
In this paper, we examine first the steadiness of the rate of evolutionary change in a larval hemolymph protein, LHP, in numerous Drosophila species. We estimated amino acid sequence divergence from immunological distances measured with the quantitative microcomplement fixation technique. Using tests not depending on knowledge of absolute times of(More)
Hypervariable parts of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were amplified enzymatically and sequenced directly by using genomic DNA from single plucked human hairs. This method has been applied to study mtDNA sequence variation among 15 members of the !Kung population. A genealogical tree relating these aboriginal, Khoisan-speaking southern Africans to 68 other(More)
This study extends knowledge of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity in mice to include 208 animals belonging to eight species in the subgenus Mus. Highly purified mtDNA from each has been subjected to high-resolution restriction mapping with respect to the known sequence of one mouse mtDNA. Variation attributed to base substitutions was encountered at about(More)
Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is known to contain information about the genealogical relations among closely related species and is shown here to yield information about distant relations as well. Our results also draw attention to the need for caution in using third positions of codons for tree construction. This is evident from comparative studies of(More)
Pairs of templates and primers were designed so that only recombination events would lead to amplification via the polymerase chain reaction. This approach reveals that lesions such as breaks, apurinic sites, and UV damage in a DNA template can cause the extending primer to jump to another template during the polymerase chain reaction. By comparing(More)