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Emerging diseases are among the greatest threats to honey bees. Unfortunately, where and when an emerging disease will appear are almost impossible to predict. The arrival of the parasitic Varroa mite into the Hawaiian honey bee population allowed us to investigate changes in the prevalence, load, and strain diversity of honey bee viruses. The mite(More)
In this study we show that metals, and in particular copper (Cu), can disrupt the lytic cycle in the Emiliania huxleyi - EhV86 host-virus system. E. huxleyi lysis rates were reduced at high total Cu concentrations (> approximately 500 nM) in the presence and absence of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in acute short term exposure experiments. Zinc(More)
The rapid advancement of next generation sequencing protocols in recent years has led to the diversification in the methods used to study microbial communities; however, how comparable the data generated from these different methods are, remains unclear. In this study we compared the taxonomic composition and seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community(More)
Effects of elevated pCO₂ on Emiliania huxleyi genetic diversity and the viruses that infect E. huxleyi (EhVs) have been investigated in large volume enclosures in a Norwegian fjord. Triplicate enclosures were bubbled with air enriched with CO₂ to 760 ppmv whilst the other three enclosures were bubbled with air at ambient pCO₂; phytoplankton growth was(More)
Emiliania huxleyi is the main calcite producer on Earth and is routinely infected by a virus (EhV); a double stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus belonging to the family Phycodnaviridae. E. huxleyi exhibits a haplodiploid life cycle; the calcified diploid stage is non-motile and forms extensive blooms. The haploid phase is a non-calcified biflagellated cell bearing(More)
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