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As computer applications become larger with every new version, there is a growing need to provide some way for users to manage the interface complexity. There are three different potential solutions to this problem: 1) an <i>adaptable</i> interface that allows users to customize the application to suit their needs; 2) an <i>adaptive</i> interface that(More)
This paper presents the details of a student model that enables an open learning environment to provide tailored feedback on a learner's exploration. Open learning environments have been shown to be beneficial for learners with appropriate learning styles and characteristics, but problematic for those who are not able to explore effectively. To address this(More)
This research examines a design guideline that aims to increase the positive perception of interruptions. The guideline advocates matching the amount of attention attracted by an interruption's notification method (attentional draw) to the utility of the interruption content. Our first experiment examined a set of 10 visual notification signals in terms of(More)
Designers of GUI applications typically arrange commands in hierarchical structures, such as menus, due to screen space limitations. However, hierarchical organisations are known to slow down expert users. This paper proposes the use of spatial memory in combination with hierarchy flattening as a means of improving GUI performance. We demonstrate these(More)
We describe a mixed-initiative framework designed to support the customization of complex graphical user interfaces. The framework uses an innovative form of online GOMS analysis to provide the user with tailored customization suggestions aimed at maximizing the user's performance with the interface. The suggestions are presented non-intrusively, minimizing(More)
Successful learning though exploration in open learning environments has been shown to depend on whether students possess the necessary meta-cognitive skills, including systematic exploration, hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing. We argue that an additional meta-cognitive skill crucial for effective learning through exploration is self-explanation:(More)
Current generations of computer algebra systems require users to transform two dimensional math expressions into one dimensional strings, to master complex sets of commands, and to analyze lengthy output strings for relevant information. MathBrush is a system, designed based on research in education pedagogy, that provides a pen-based interface to many of(More)
Examining large-scale, long-term application use is critical to understanding the degree to which an application meets the needs of its user community. However, there has been limited published analysis of this type of data, none of which pertains to applications that support creating and modifying content using direct manipulation. In this paper, we(More)