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Selective pressure exerted by a massive decline in atmospheric CO(2) levels 55 to 40 million years ago promoted the evolution of a novel, highly efficient mode of photosynthetic carbon assimilation known as C(4) photosynthesis. C(4) species have concurrently evolved multiple times in a broad range of plant families, and this multiple and parallel evolution(More)
The C(4) photosynthetic pathway enriches carbon dioxide in the vicinity of Rubisco, thereby enabling plants to assimilate carbon more efficiently. Three canonical subtypes of C(4) exist, named after their main decarboxylating enzymes: NAD-dependent malic enzyme type, NADP-dependent malic enzyme type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase type. Cleome(More)
The Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) is one of the most well-known carnivorous plants because of its unique ability to capture small animals, usually insects or spiders, through a unique snap-trapping mechanism. The animals are subsequently killed and digested so that the plants can assimilate nutrients, as they grow in mineral-deficient soils. We deep(More)
BACKGROUND The garden pea, Pisum sativum, is among the best-investigated legume plants and of significant agro-commercial relevance. Pisum sativum has a large and complex genome and accordingly few comprehensive genomic resources exist. RESULTS We analyzed the pea transcriptome at the highest possible amount of accuracy by current technology. We used next(More)
C(4) photosynthesis involves alterations to the biochemistry, cell biology, and development of leaves. Together, these modifications increase the efficiency of photosynthesis, and despite the apparent complexity of the pathway, it has evolved at least 45 times independently within the angiosperms. To provide insight into the extent to which gene expression(More)
Pyruvate serves as a metabolic precursor for many plastid-localized biosynthetic pathways, such as those for fatty acids, terpenoids and branched-chain amino acids. In spite of the importance of pyruvate uptake into plastids (organelles within cells of plants and algae), the molecular mechanisms of this uptake have not yet been explored. This is mainly(More)
We systematically analyzed a developmental gradient of the third maize (Zea mays) leaf from the point of emergence into the light to the tip in 10 continuous leaf slices to study organ development and physiological and biochemical functions. Transcriptome analysis, oxygen sensitivity of photosynthesis, and photosynthetic rate measurements showed that the(More)
Plastids are the defining organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. They are the site of photosynthesis and of a large number of other essential metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid and amino acid biosyntheses, sulfur and nitrogen assimilation, and aromatic and terpenoid compound production, to mention only a few examples. The metabolism of plastids is(More)
C4 photosynthesis affords higher photosynthetic carbon conversion efficiency than C3 photosynthesis and it therefore represents an attractive target for engineering efforts aiming to improve crop productivity. To this end, blueprints are required that reflect C4 metabolism as closely as possible. Such blueprints have been derived from comparative(More)
CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with(More)