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BACKGROUND The garden pea, Pisum sativum, is among the best-investigated legume plants and of significant agro-commercial relevance. Pisum sativum has a large and complex genome and accordingly few comprehensive genomic resources exist. RESULTS We analyzed the pea transcriptome at the highest possible amount of accuracy by current technology. We used next(More)
Pyruvate serves as a metabolic precursor for many plastid-localized biosynthetic pathways, such as those for fatty acids, terpenoids and branched-chain amino acids. In spite of the importance of pyruvate uptake into plastids (organelles within cells of plants and algae), the molecular mechanisms of this uptake have not yet been explored. This is mainly(More)
Plastids are the defining organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes. They are the site of photosynthesis and of a large number of other essential metabolic pathways, such as fatty acid and amino acid biosyntheses, sulfur and nitrogen assimilation, and aromatic and terpenoid compound production, to mention only a few examples. The metabolism of plastids is(More)
C4 photosynthesis affords higher photosynthetic carbon conversion efficiency than C3 photosynthesis and it therefore represents an attractive target for engineering efforts aiming to improve crop productivity. To this end, blueprints are required that reflect C4 metabolism as closely as possible. Such blueprints have been derived from comparative(More)
CAM and C4 photosynthesis are two key plant adaptations that have evolved independently multiple times, and are especially prevalent in particular groups of plants, including the Caryophyllales. We investigate the origin of photosynthetic PEPC, a key enzyme of both the CAM and C4 pathways. We combine phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding PEPC with(More)
Transcriptomic sequence resources represent invaluable assets for research, in particular for non-model species without a sequenced genome. To date, the Next Generation Sequencing technologies 454/Roche and Illumina have been used to generate transcriptome sequence databases by mRNA-Seq for more than fifty different plant species. While some of the(More)
C4 photosynthesis has higher light-use, nitrogen-use, and water-use efficiencies than C3 photosynthesis. Historically, most of C4 plants were classified into three subtypes (NADP-malic enzyme (ME), NAD-ME, or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) subtypes) according to their major decarboxylation enzyme. However, a wealth of historic and recent data(More)
Maize is a major crop plant, grown for human and animal nutrition, as well as a renewable resource for bioenergy. When looking at the problems of limited fossil fuels, the growth of the world’s population or the world’s climate change, it is important to find ways to increase the yield and biomass of maize and to study how it reacts to specific abiotic and(More)
C4 photosynthesis represents a most remarkable case of convergent evolution of a complex trait, which includes the reprogramming of the expression patterns of thousands of genes. Anatomical, physiological, and phylogenetic and analyses as well as computational modeling indicate that the establishment of a photorespiratory carbon pump (termed C2(More)
Some microbial eukaryotes, such as the extremophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria, live in hot, toxic metal-rich, acidic environments. To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of adaptation, we sequenced the 13.7-megabase genome of G. sulphuraria. This alga shows an enormous metabolic flexibility, growing either photoautotrophically or(More)