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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCS) is used for noninvasive and painless mapping of the somatotopical organization of the motor cortex. TCS mapping of motor cortical output to the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle was followed up in monohemispheric stroke patients by evaluating motor evoked potentials (MEPs). This approach(More)
OBJECT The authors compared the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) with those in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) in whom electrodes had been bilaterally implanted in both targets. METHODS Eight of 14 patients with advanced PD in whom electrodes had been implanted bilaterally(More)
Systemic decrease of dopaminergic cells, such as in Parkinson's disease may produce visual alterations in humans. In order to show possible pattern electroretinogram (PERG) spatial tuning function (STF) alterations due to impaired dopaminergic transmission in humans, we studied a group of Parkinson's disease patients before and during treatment with the(More)
During stereotaxic neurosurgery for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease (PD), we performed a microdialysis study of the extracellular amino acid (aspartate, glutamate, glycine, and GABA) concentrations. Their levels were measured in the GPe/GPi of five and in the STN of four different PD patients, after prolonged therapy washout. The results show(More)
Stochastic differential equations in Hilbert space as random nonlinear modified Schrödinger equations have achieved great attention in recent years; of particular interest is the long time behavior of their solutions. In this note we discuss the long time behavior of the solutions of the stochastic differential equation describing the time evolution of a(More)
The levels of the neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone (THP) and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (DHP) were quantified in the plasma of 11 (group 1) and in the liquor of 12 (group 2) Parkinson's disease (PD) patients using a gas-chromatographic/mass-spectrometric method. When compared with controls, both groups showed a significant decrease in DHP and THP(More)
Focal magnetic transcranial stimulation (TCS) is employed for mapping of the motor cortical output to abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the interhemispheric asymmetries in normals. Motor maps were obtained through motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recordings from ADM muscle in 20 healthy subjects in right and left(More)
Twenty right-handed patients affected by early/mild Parkinson's disease were evaluated in a randomised study using neuropsychological and clinical assessements during three treatment modalities: when in the off treatment condition, when on pramipexole, and when on l-dopa. In comparison to the off treatment condition, the DA-agonist pramipexole produced a(More)
OBJECTIVES In the present study we investigated whether in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients the frontal component of short somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) to median nerve stimulation may be modified by basal ganglia deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS We recorded the SEPs in 6 PD patients undergoing bilateral functional neurosurgery in(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, internal globus pallidus (GPi) stimulation has been reported to produce good effects on abnormal involuntary movements (AIM); less improvement has been observed in extrapyramidal symptoms. We assessed the effect of monopolar dorsal (uppermost), ventral (lowest) and bipolar (uppermost vs. lowest) bilateral globus(More)