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Human cDNA coding for the hyperpolarization-activated "pacemaker" channel HCN2 was expressed in Phoenix cells and yielded an inward current (IhHCN2) activated on hyperpolarization. The average IhHCN2 was half-activated at -83.1 mV and its kinetics could be described by second-order Hodgkin-Huxley gating. The time constant curve was bell-shaped and peaked at(More)
Pacemaker channels are encoded by the HCN gene family and are responsible for a variety of cellular functions including control of spontaneous activity in cardiac myocytes and control of excitability in different types of neurons. Some of these functions require specific membrane localization. Although several voltage-gated channels are known to interact(More)
Ventricular pacemaker current (I(f)) shows distinct voltage dependence as a function of age, activating outside the physiological range in normal adult ventricle, but less negatively in neonatal ventricle. However, heterologously expressed HCN2 and HCN4, the putative molecular correlates of ventricular I(f), exhibit only a modest difference in activation(More)
The hyperpolarization-activated I(h) current, coded for by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, controls synaptic integration and intrinsic excitability in many brain areas. Because of their role in pacemaker function, defective HCN channels are natural candidates for contributing to epileptogenesis. Indeed, I(h) is(More)
Lipid rafts are discrete membrane subdomains rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol. In ventricular myocytes a function of caveolae, a type of lipid rafts, is to concentrate in close proximity several proteins of the beta-adrenergic transduction pathway. We have investigated the subcellular localization of HCN4 channels expressed in HEK cells and studied the(More)
Activation of the pacemaker ("funny," I(f)) current during diastole is the main process underlying generation of the diastolic depolarization and spontaneous activity of cardiac pacemaker cells. I(f) modulation by autonomic transmitters is responsible for the chronotropic regulation of heart rate. Given its role in pacemaking, I(f) has been a major target(More)
In the adult animal the sinoatrial node (SAN) rhythmically generates a depolarizing wave that propagates to the rest of the heart. However, the SAN is more than a simple clock; it is a clock that adjusts its pace according to the metabolic requirements of the organism. The Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated channels (HCN1-4) are the(More)
1. The hyperpolarization-activated If current was recorded in inside-out macropatches from sino-atrial (SA) node myocytes during exposure of their intracellular side to pronase, in an attempt to verify if cytoplasmic f-channel domains are involved in both voltage- and cAMP-dependent gating. 2. Superfusion with pronase caused a quick, dramatic acceleration(More)
Cell culture studies demonstrate an increase in cardiac L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) density on sympathetic innervation in vitro and suggest the effect depends on neurally released neuropeptide Y (NPY). To determine if a similar mechanism contributes to the postnatal increase in ICa,L in vivo, we prepared isolated ventricular myocytes from neonatal and adult(More)
Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) differentiate into all cardiac phenotypes, and thus represent an important potential source for cardiac regenerative therapies. Here we characterize the molecular composition and functional properties of "funny" (f-) channels in mESC-derived pacemaker cells. Following differentiation, a fraction of mESC-derived myocytes(More)