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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are potent mammary carcinogens in rodents, but their effect on breast cancer development in women is not clear. To examine whether currently measurable PAH damage to DNA increases breast cancer risk, a population-based case-control study was undertaken on Long Island, NY. Cases were women newly diagnosed with in situ(More)
To evaluate whether environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) influences breast cancer incidence, data from a population-based case-control study were analyzed. Respondents with available ETS information assessed by in-person questionnaires included 1356 newly diagnosed cases and 1383 controls. Relative to nonsmokers who reported no residential ETS exposure(More)
The Alcohol Dependence Syndrome concept has had a widespread influence on the major nosological classification systems, most recently with its operationalization as DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Although many studies have provided evidence of the validity of the Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in clinical samples, little validation work has been conducted in(More)
OBJECTIVES A large group of Russian Jews has immigrated to Israel since 1989. Russia has one of the highest alcohol consumption levels in the world, while the level in Israel is among the lowest. This study was designed to provide empirical information on the drinking of these Russian immigrants compared with the drinking of other Jewish Israeli residents.(More)
OBJECTIVE Prior research in a community sample indicated that almost half the individuals receiving a diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol abuse did so on the basis of only one symptom, driving after drinking too much. While this is certainly unwise behavior, it may not be a psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we investigated the differential validity of this subgroup(More)
OBJECTIVE The clinical and research importance of tolerance and/or withdrawal in the diagnosis of substance dependence has been identified as a key area needing clarification. Earlier longitudinal studies did not identify whether diagnoses of alcohol dependence were current or lifetime. In this study, the prognostic significance of the DSM-IV physiological(More)
OBJECTIVE Although a category for alcohol abuse has been included in the major nomenclatures since DSM-III, many questions have been raised about the definitions and validity of this category. METHOD We investigated DSM-IV alcohol abuse in 628 at-risk drinkers residing in households who never met criteria for DSM-IV alcohol dependence at the time of a(More)
To receive a DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence, an individual must manifest at least three out of seven possible dependence criteria. Thus, individuals may manifest one or two dependence criteria yet not receive the dependence diagnosis. In a sense, these latter individuals may be seen as diagnostic 'orphans', since they have individual symptoms of(More)
BACKGROUND The role of positive family history in the etiology of alcohol dependence has been demonstrated repeatedly but little is known about the effect of this risk factor on the chronicity of alcohol dependence once it has begun. METHODS We studied the effects of parental and sibling history in conjunction with frequency of binge drinking in a sample(More)
DNA repair is essential to an individual's ability to respond to damage caused by environmental carcinogens. Alterations in DNA repair genes may affect cancer risk by influencing individual susceptibility to environmental exposures. XPD, a gene involved in nucleotide excision repair, may influence individual DNA repair capacity particularly of bulky(More)