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Estimation of chest wall motion by surface measurements only allows one-dimensional measurements of the chest wall. We have assessed on optical reflectance system (OR), which tracks reflective markers in three dimensions (3-D) for respiratory use. We used 86 (6-mm-diameter) hemispherical reflective markers arranged circumferentially on the chest wall in(More)
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during tidal breathing is a major determinant of dynamic hyperinflation and exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current methods of detecting this are either invasive or unsuited to following changes breath-by-breath. It was hypothesised that tidal flow limitation would substantially reduce(More)
Coughing both protects the airways from foreign material and clears excessive secretions in respiratory diseases, and therefore requires high expiratory flows. We hypothesised that the volume inspired prior to coughing (operating volume) would significantly influence the mechanical changes during coughing and thus cough flow. Sixteen healthy volunteers (6(More)
We measured pressures and power of diaphragm, rib cage, and abdominal muscles during quiet breathing (QB) and exercise at 0, 30, 50, and 70% maximum workload (Wmax) in five men. By three-dimensional tracking of 86 chest wall markers, we calculated the volumes of lung- and diaphragm-apposed rib cage compartments (Vrc,p and Vrc,a, respectively) and the(More)
BACKGROUND Dynamic hyperinflation of the lungs impairs exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which patients are affected by dynamic hyperinflation and how the respiratory muscles respond to the change in lung volume. METHODS Using optoelectronic plethysmography, total and regional chest wall volumes(More)
The volume of O(2) exchanged at the mouth during a breath (Vo(2,m)) is equal to that taken up by pulmonary capillaries (Vo(2,A)) only if lung O(2) stores are constant. The latter change if either end-expiratory lung volume (EELV), or alveolar O(2) fraction (Fa(O(2))) change. Measuring this requires breath-by-breath (BbB) measurement of absolute EELV, for(More)
During exercise, large pleural, abdominal, and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings might produce substantial rib cage (RC) distortions. We used a three-compartment chest wall model (J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 1338-1347, 1992) to measure distortions of lung- and diaphragm-apposed RC compartments (RCp and RCa) along with pleural and abdominal pressures in five(More)
Published data indicate that exercise in COPD is more often limited by leg effort than breathlessness. This casts some doubt on the classical belief that inability to ventilate limits exercise performance. In fact, symptoms limiting exercise appear to be essentially the same in COPD and in health or congestive heart failure, where exercise is limited by(More)
A method for kinematic analysis of chest wall motion is presented, based on a television-image processor that allows a three-dimensional assessment of volume change of the trunk by automatically computing the coordinates of several passive markers placed on relevant landmarks of the thorax and abdomen. The parallel computation used for the image processing(More)
To determine how decreasing velocity of shortening (U) of expiratory muscles affects breathing during exercise, six normal men performed incremental exercise with externally imposed expiratory flow limitation (EFLe) at approximately 1 l/s. We measured volumes of chest wall, lung- and diaphragm-apposed rib cage (Vrc,p and Vrc,a, respectively), and abdomen(More)