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We assessed the effect of inspiratory loaded breathing (ILB) on respiratory muscle strength and investigated the extent to which respiratory muscle fatigue is associated with chest wall volume changes during ILB. Twelve healthy subjects performed ILB at 76 ± 11% of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) for 1h. MIP and breathing pattern during 3 min of(More)
Breath-by-breath (BbB) oxygen uptake rate (V(O)(2)) was measured at the mouth (MO) and at the alveolar level, at the onset of square wave cycling exercise of moderate intensity in six healthy male subjects. Alveolar BbB V(O)(2) values were calculated correcting MO V(O)(2) values by (i) estimating (GR); and (ii) measuring (opto-electronic plethysmography,(More)
This short review summarizes how lung and chest wall mechanics can be modelled and which are the mechanical constraints imposed on the ventilatory system and its components during exercise. In healthy humans the structural and functional characteristics of the ventilator pump are able to meet the increased demands of ventilation during exercise and it is(More)
Assessment of the presence and severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) is based on subjective reporting of the sensation of symptoms. The Lake Louise symptom scoring system (LLS) uses categorical variables to rate the intensity of AMS-related symptoms (headache, gastrointestinal distress, dizziness, fatigue, sleep quality) on 4-point ordinal scales; the(More)
Were evaluated individuals divided into two groups: we studied chronic heart failure (CHF) (19 patients with CHF plus cardiomegaly) and control (12 healthy volunteers) during performance of inspiratory loaded breathing (ILB). We evaluated: spirometry, functional capacity through the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and distribution of thoracoabdominal volumes(More)
A method for kinematic analysis of chest wall motion is presented, based on a television-image processor that allows a three-dimensional assessment of volume change of the trunk by automatically computing the coordinates of several passive markers placed on relevant landmarks of the thorax and abdomen. The parallel computation used for the image processing(More)
To investigate the effects of posture and gender on thoraco-abdominal motion and breathing pattern, 34 healthy men and women were studied by Opto-Electronic Plethysmography during quiet breathing in five different postures from seated (with and without back support) to supine position. Chest wall kinematics and breathing pattern were significantly(More)
Scanhead tracking by opto-electronic (OE) systems allows high accuracy in three-dimensional (3-D) freehand ultrasound imaging. In this paper, a new set of methods is proposed and compared with the standard approach [Gram-Schmidt method (GS)]. Three redundancy-based algorithms are introduced to compensate for possible loss of markers during data acquisition:(More)
We compared the rate of perceived exertion for respiratory (RPE,resp) and leg (RPE,legs) muscles, using a 10-point Borg scale, to their specific power outputs in 10 healthy male subjects during incremental cycle exercise at sea level (SL) and high altitude (HA, 4559 m). Respiratory power output was calculated from breath-by-breath esophageal pressure and(More)
When measuring breath-by-breath (BbB) oxygen uptake at the mouth (V MO2 ) as the difference between the amount of inspired and expired oxygen, BbB variation in lung oxygen stores due to BbB variation in end-expiratory lung volume (VLET) introduces an error leading to a decreased signal-to-noise ratio when compared to oxygen uptake at the alveolo-capillary(More)