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Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during tidal breathing is a major determinant of dynamic hyperinflation and exercise limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Current methods of detecting this are either invasive or unsuited to following changes breath-by-breath. It was hypothesised that tidal flow limitation would substantially reduce(More)
Estimation of chest wall motion by surface measurements only allows one-dimensional measurements of the chest wall. We have assessed on optical reflectance system (OR), which tracks reflective markers in three dimensions (3-D) for respiratory use. We used 86 (6-mm-diameter) hemispherical reflective markers arranged circumferentially on the chest wall in(More)
Coughing both protects the airways from foreign material and clears excessive secretions in respiratory diseases, and therefore requires high expiratory flows. We hypothesised that the volume inspired prior to coughing (operating volume) would significantly influence the mechanical changes during coughing and thus cough flow. Sixteen healthy volunteers (6(More)
BACKGROUND Dynamic hyperinflation of the lungs impairs exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, it is unclear which patients are affected by dynamic hyperinflation and how the respiratory muscles respond to the change in lung volume. METHODS Using optoelectronic plethysmography, total and regional chest wall volumes(More)
Published data indicate that exercise in COPD is more often limited by leg effort than breathlessness. This casts some doubt on the classical belief that inability to ventilate limits exercise performance. In fact, symptoms limiting exercise appear to be essentially the same in COPD and in health or congestive heart failure, where exercise is limited by(More)
To determine the effects of exercise with expiratory flow-limitation (EFL) on systemic O(2) delivery, seven normal subjects performed incremental exercise with and without EFL at approximately 0.8 l s(-1) (imposed by a Starling resistor in the expiratory line) to determine maximal power output under control (W'(max,c)) and EFL (W'(max,e)) conditions.(More)
We measured pressures and power of diaphragm, rib cage, and abdominal muscles during quiet breathing (QB) and exercise at 0, 30, 50, and 70% maximum workload (Wmax) in five men. By three-dimensional tracking of 86 chest wall markers, we calculated the volumes of lung- and diaphragm-apposed rib cage compartments (Vrc,p and Vrc,a, respectively) and the(More)
We assessed the effect of inspiratory loaded breathing (ILB) on respiratory muscle strength and investigated the extent to which respiratory muscle fatigue is associated with chest wall volume changes during ILB. Twelve healthy subjects performed ILB at 76 ± 11% of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (MIP) for 1h. MIP and breathing pattern during 3 min of(More)
Breath-by-breath (BbB) oxygen uptake rate (V(O)(2)) was measured at the mouth (MO) and at the alveolar level, at the onset of square wave cycling exercise of moderate intensity in six healthy male subjects. Alveolar BbB V(O)(2) values were calculated correcting MO V(O)(2) values by (i) estimating (GR); and (ii) measuring (opto-electronic plethysmography,(More)
BACKGROUND Inhaled bronchodilators can increase exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by reducing dynamic hyperinflation, but treatment is not always effective. This may reflect the degree to which the abdomen allows dynamic hyperinflation to occur. METHOD A double blind, randomised, crossover trial of the effect of 5 mg(More)