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Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across(More)
BACKGROUND Accurate and reliable laboratory methods are needed for estimation of HIV-1 incidence to identify the high-risk populations and target and monitor prevention efforts. We previously described a single-well limiting-antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay (LAg-Avidity EIA) to detect recent HIV-1 infection. METHODS We describe here further optimization(More)
BACKGROUND Several approaches have been used for measuring HIV incidence in large areas, yet each presents specific challenges in incidence estimation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We present a comparison of incidence estimates for Kenya and Uganda using multiple methods: 1) Epidemic Projections Package (EPP) and Spectrum models fitted to HIV prevalence(More)
BACKGROUND To assess the performance of BED-CEIA (BED) and AxSYM Avidity Index (Ax-AI) assays in estimating HIV incidence among female sex workers (FSW) in Kigali, Rwanda. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS Eight hundred FSW of unknown HIV status were HIV tested; HIV-positive women had BED and Ax-AI testing at baseline and ≥12 months later to estimate assay(More)
BACKGROUND In order to inform prevention programming, we analyzed HIV discordance and concordance within couples in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS) 2007. METHODS KAIS was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral indicators and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with prevalent HIV in a national HIV survey in Kenya. METHODS The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey was a nationally representative population-based sero-survey that examined demographic and behavioral factors and serologic testing for HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis in adults aged 15-64 years. We analyzed questionnaire and(More)
OBJECTIVES National population-wide HIV prevalence and incidence trends in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are indirectly estimated using HIV prevalence measured among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (ANC), among other data. We evaluated whether recent HIV prevalence trends among pregnant women are representative of general population trends. DESIGN(More)
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications –whether for sale or for non-commercial distribution– should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health(More)
BACKGROUND Mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and misclassification of long-term HIV-1 infections, as proportion false recent (PFR), are critical parameters for laboratory-based assays for estimating HIV-1 incidence. Recent review of the data by us and others indicated that MDRI of LAg-Avidity EIA estimated previously required recalibration. We(More)
BACKGROUND The interpretation of HIV prevalence trends is increasingly difficult as antiretroviral treatment programs expand. Reliable HIV incidence estimates are critical to monitoring transmission trends and guiding an effective national response to the epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS We used a range of methods to estimate HIV incidence in South Africa:(More)