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We conducted a detailed analysis of duplicate genes in three complete genomes: yeast, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans. For two proteins belonging to the same family we used the criteria: (1) their similarity is > or =I (I = 30% if L > or = 150 a.a. and I = 0.01n + 4.8L(-0.32(1 + exp(-L/1000))) if L < 150 a.a., where n = 6 and L is the length of the(More)
In this paper we present a new method for detecting block duplications in a genome. It is more stringent than previous ones in that it requires a more rigorous definition of paralogous genes and that it requires the paralogous proteins on the two blocks to be contiguous. In addition, it provides three criterion choices: (1) the same composition (i.e.,(More)
We sequenced and analyzed the subtelomeric regions of 1356 macronuclear "nanochromosomes" of the spirotrichous ciliate Oxytricha trifallax. We show that the telomeres in this species have a length of 20 nt, with minor deviations; there is no correlation between telomere lengths at the two ends of the molecule. A search for open reading frames revealed that(More)
The macronuclear genomes of spirotrichous ciliates are almost entirely polyploid, single-gene chromosomes ("nanochromosomes"). We recently performed a pilot genome project for a member of this group, Oxytricha trifallax ( Sterkiella histriomuscorum), in which approximately 2000 nanochromosomes were cloned at random and end-sequenced. Here we describe the(More)
Ciliated protozoa have two kinds of nuclei: Macronuclei (MAC) and Micronuclei (MIC). In some ciliate classes, such as spirotrichs, most genes undergo several layers of DNA rearrangement during macronuclear development. Because of such processes, these organisms provide ideal systems for studying mechanisms of recombination and gene rearrangement. Here, we(More)
BACKGROUND It has been long thought that the stop codon in a gene is followed by another stop codon that acts as a backup if the real one is read through by a near-cognate tRNA. The existence of such 'tandem stop codons', however, remains elusive. RESULTS Here we show that a statistical excess of stop codons has evolved at the third codon downstream of(More)
Fusions of the first two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL), have been previously described in two distant clades, chordates and species of the malarial parasite Plasmodium. We have analyzed genome and expressed sequence data from a variety of organisms to identify the(More)
BACKGROUND Programmed DNA elimination and reorganization frequently occur during cellular differentiation. Development of the somatic macronucleus in some ciliates presents an extreme case, involving excision of internal eliminated sequences (IESs) that interrupt coding DNA segments (macronuclear destined sequences, MDSs), as well as removal of(More)
We used the recently sequenced genomes of the ciliates Tetrahymena thermophila and Paramecium tetraurelia to analyze the codon usage patterns in both organisms; we have analyzed codon usage bias, Gln codon usage, GC content and the nucleotide contexts of initiation and termination codons in Tetrahymena and Paramecium. We also studied how these trends change(More)