Andre Pires da Cunha

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Astrocytosis is a common neurocellular manifestation of brain pathology in individuals with a variety of diseases. It is comprised of astrocytic hyperplasia (an increase in number of astrocytes) and astrocytic hypertrophy (an increase in size of astrocytes). The precise cause(s) of astrocytosis remains unknown. We morphometrically measured the relative(More)
Gliosis is the most frequent and therefore important neurocellular reaction to brain insult occurring in diseases ranging from AIDS to infarction. Neuropathological diagnosis of gliosis is based on morphological changes of brain glial cells. Changes commonly agreed to reflect gliosis are qualitative increases in size, number and glial fibrillary acidic(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is elevated in brain tissue of individuals who died with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other diseases where this cytokine likely stimulates reactive astrocytosis. IL-1 stimulates, among others, production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(More)
BACKGROUND Type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells, characterized by the secretion of high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), play an important role in the regulation of autoimmune diseases and transplantation. However, effective strategies that specifically induce Tr1 cells in vivo are limited. Furthermore, the pathways controlling(More)
Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1) immunoreactive product (IRP) has recently been detected in autopsied brains of individuals who died with central nervous system diseases and/or fever but not in normal individuals or in normal rodent brain. However, the mechanism(s) of induction of TGF-beta 1 in brain and the identity of cells expressing(More)
Atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy to lithium or valproate is effective in treating acute mania. Although continuation of atypical antipsychotic adjunctive therapy after mania remission reduces relapse of mood episodes, the optimal duration is unknown. As many atypical antipsychotics cause weight gain and metabolic syndrome, they should not be(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a potent modulator of immune and glial cells' functions and thus, could play an important role in neuro-immune interaction. However, published reports disagree on whether or not TGF-beta 1 is expressed in normal brain. We demonstrate here the constitutive expression of TGF-beta 1 mRNA but not protein in both(More)
Growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) is an abundant, intensely investigated membrane phosphoprotein of the nervous system (Benowitz, L.I., and A. Routtenberg. 1987. Trends Neurosci. 10:527-532; Skene, J. H. P. 1989. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 12:127-156), with a hitherto unknown function. We have previously demonstrated that astrocytes, brain macroglial cells,(More)
Motor and cognitive impairment is common in human immunodeficiency virus disease in humans and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) disease in rhesus monkeys. We have examined peptide neurotransmitter expression in the frontal cortex of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys to identify alterations in cortical neurons that might explain this impairment. A 2-fold higher(More)
Ameboid microglia express human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) more frequently than do ramified microglia. These two microglial subtypes might also differ in the frequency with which they express transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a cytokine that regulates HIV-1 expression in monocytes. Results described here show that ameboid and ramified(More)