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Widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is assumed to underlie the failure of brain mechanisms that support communication and goal-directed behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury. Disorders of consciousness that persist for longer than 12 months after severe traumatic brain injury are generally considered to be immutable; no treatment has been(More)
Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years.(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) for treatment refractory depression. METHODS Fifteen patients with chronic, severe, highly refractory depression received open-label DBS at three collaborating clinical sites. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the VC/VS region.(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a widely accepted therapy for medically refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). Both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation are safe and effective in improving the symptoms of PD and reducing dyskinesias. STN DBS is the most commonly performed surgery for PD as compared to GPi DBS. Ventral(More)
INTRODUCTION Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is frequently used to treat chronic, intractable back, and leg pain. Implantation can be accomplished with percutaneous leads or paddle leads. Although there is an extensive literature on SCS, the long-term efficacy, particularly with paddle leads, remains poorly defined. Outcome measure choice is important when(More)
INTRODUCTION Cluster headaches (CH) are primary headaches marked by repeated short-lasting attacks of severe, unilateral head pain and associated autonomic symptoms. Despite aggressive management with medications, oxygen therapy, nerve blocks, as well as various lesioning and neurostimulation therapies, a number of patients are incapacitated and suffering.(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical benefits of deep brain stimulation can be limited by the presence of side effects produced by current spread to adjacent structures. OBJECTIVE To identify a correlation between coordinates for each individual contact, neighboring structures, and pattern of side effects. METHODS Coordinates of the electrodes and anatomic landmarks(More)
PURPOSE The remarkable motor recovery observed after hemispherectomy in patients and experimental animals has puzzled investigators, as it defies classic jacksonian neurology. Several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been considered, such as neuronal sprouting to subcortical structures, neurochemical changes, and cerebellar diaschisis. The spared(More)
OBJECTIVES To review the current state of cerebral stimulation for neuropathic pain and to propose that cerebral stimulation should aim also at the affective sphere of chronic pain rather than solely focusing on the primary sensory-discriminative sphere. METHODS The past and current goals of cerebral stimulation are reviewed as well as its limitations. A(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the triad of chorea, cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disturbances. Since the discovery of the HD gene, the pathogenesis has been outlined, but to date a cure has not been found. Disease modifying therapies are needed desperately to improve function, alleviate(More)