Andre G. Machado

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Widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is assumed to underlie the failure of brain mechanisms that support communication and goal-directed behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury. Disorders of consciousness that persist for longer than 12 months after severe traumatic brain injury are generally considered to be immutable; no treatment has been(More)
Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years.(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) for treatment refractory depression. METHODS Fifteen patients with chronic, severe, highly refractory depression received open-label DBS at three collaborating clinical sites. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the VC/VS region.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how interhemispheric balance in stroke, measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), relates to balance defined using neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance [fMRI], diffusion-tensor imaging [DTI]) and how these metrics of balance are associated with clinical measures of upper-limb function and disability. DESIGN(More)
Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a benign tumor that rarely spread along the neuraxis. At the moment there are no more than five cases of leptomeningeal dissemination (LD) from PA at diagnosis described in the literature. Different patterns of presentation or recurrence may be noted: local recurrence, malignant transformation, multicentric disease or(More)
INTRODUCTION Cluster headaches (CH) are primary headaches marked by repeated short-lasting attacks of severe, unilateral head pain and associated autonomic symptoms. Despite aggressive management with medications, oxygen therapy, nerve blocks, as well as various lesioning and neurostimulation therapies, a number of patients are incapacitated and suffering.(More)
Electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulations have proven to be therapeutically beneficial for patients suffering from neurological disorders. Moreover, these stimulation technologies have provided invaluable tools for investigating nervous system functions. Despite this success, these technologies have technical and practical limitations impeding the(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) orglobus pallidus pars interna (GPi) is well established as a treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. In general, one of the 2 targets is chosen based on the clinical features of each patient. Stimulation of both targets could be viewed as redundant, given that the 2 targets are directly(More)
INTRODUCTION Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is frequently used to treat chronic, intractable back, and leg pain. Implantation can be accomplished with percutaneous leads or paddle leads. Although there is an extensive literature on SCS, the long-term efficacy, particularly with paddle leads, remains poorly defined. Outcome measure choice is important when(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a widely accepted therapy for medically refractory Parkinson's disease (PD). Both globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation are safe and effective in improving the symptoms of PD and reducing dyskinesias. STN DBS is the most commonly performed surgery for PD as compared to GPi DBS. Ventral(More)