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In bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants the Trk, Ktr and HKT ion transporters are key components of osmotic regulation, pH homeostasis and resistance to drought and high salinity. These ion transporters are functionally diverse: they can function as Na(+) or K(+) channels and possibly as cation/K(+) symporters. They are closely related to potassium channels(More)
The chloride ion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) displays a typical adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) protein architecture comprising two transmembrane domains, two intracellular nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a unique intracellular regulatory domain. Once phosphorylated in the regulatory domain,(More)
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a chloride channel belonging to the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. ABC proteins share a common molecular mechanism that couples ATP binding and hydrolysis at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) to diverse functions. This involves formation of NBD dimers, with(More)
A central step in the gating of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is the association of its two cytosolic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) into a head-to-tail dimer, with two nucleotides bound at the interface. Channel opening and closing, respectively, are coupled to formation and disruption of this tight NBD(More)
In adult beta-cells glucose-induced insulin secretion involves two mechanisms (a) a K(ATP) channel-dependent Ca(2+) influx and rise of cytosolic [Ca(2+)](c) and (b) a K(ATP) channel-independent amplification of secretion without further increase of [Ca(2+)](c). Mice lacking the high affinity sulfonylurea receptor (Sur1KO), and thus K(ATP) channels, have(More)
In normal beta-cells glucose induces insulin secretion by activating both a triggering pathway (closure of K(ATP) channels, depolarization, and rise in cytosolic [Ca(2+)](i)) and an amplifying pathway (augmentation of Ca(2+) efficacy on exocytosis). It is unclear if and how nutrients can regulate insulin secretion by beta-cells lacking K(ATP) channels (Sur1(More)
Glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells is generally schematized by a 'consensus model' that involves the following sequence of events: acceleration of glucose metabolism, closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) in the plasma membrane, depolarization, influx of Ca(2+) through voltage-dependent calcium channels and a(More)
A current model ascribes glucose-induced insulin secretion to the interaction of a triggering pathway (K(ATP) channel-dependent Ca(2+) influx and rise in cytosolic [Ca(2+)](c)) and an amplifying pathway (K(ATP) channel-independent augmentation of secretion without further increase of [Ca(2+)](c)). However, several studies of sulfonylurea receptor 1 null(More)
Islet antigen-2 (IA-2 or ICA 512) and IA-2beta (or phogrin) are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes. They are located in dense core secretory vesicles including insulin granules, but their role in beta-cell function is unclear. Targeted disruption of either IA-2 or IA-2beta, or both, impaired glucose tolerance, an effect attributed to diminution of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K(ATP) channels) in beta cells are a major target for insulinotropic drugs. Here, we studied the effects of selected stimulatory and inhibitory pharmacological agents in islets lacking K(ATP) channels. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We compared insulin secretion (IS) and cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)](c))(More)