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Demographic and life history data from wild populations of long-lived primate species are difficult to acquire but are critical for evaluating population viability and the success of conservation efforts. Camera trapping provides an opportunity for researchers to monitor wild animal populations indirectly and could help provide demographic and life history(More)
Habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern to the conservation of endangered species because of their potentially negative impact on animal populations. Both processes can impose physiological stress (i.e. increased glucocorticoid output) on animals, and chronically elevated stress levels can have detrimental effects on the(More)
Numerous animal species currently experience habitat loss and fragmentation. This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments. Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals. Some animal species(More)
Spider monkeys (Ateles sp.) live in a flexible fission-fusion social system in which members of a social group are not in constant association, but instead form smaller subgroups of varying size and composition. Patterns of range use in spider monkeys have been described as sex-segregated, with males and females often ranging separately, females utilizing(More)
Many primate species currently subsist in fragmented and anthropogenically disturbed habitats. Different threats arise depending on the species' life history strategy, dietary requirements and habitat preference. Additionally, anthropogenic disturbance is far from uniform and may affect individual forest fragments in a single landscape in differing ways. We(More)
Elevated risk of disease transmission is considered a major cost of sociality, although empirical evidence supporting this idea remains scant. Variation in spatial cohesion and the occurrence of social interactions may have profound implications for patterns of interindividual parasite transmission. We used a social network approach to shed light on the(More)
Non-invasive methods to assess stress hormone output via fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCMs) have become a powerful tool in behavioral studies and conservation biology because they allow exploring the link between behavior, an animal's socio-ecological environment and its adrenocortical activity. However, FGCM levels are influenced by numerous other(More)
We describe patterns of scent marking observed in two wild populations of lowland woolly monkeys that were the subjects of long-term studies in the westernmost portion of the Amazon basin. The woolly monkeys engaged primarily in two types of scent marking: chest rubbing and anogenital rubbing. In both study populations, males and females performed both(More)
Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are two of the main drivers of wildlife population declines. Animals exposed to habitat disturbances must develop behavioral strategies to adapt to novel, rapidly fluctuating socioecological challenges. Understanding the behavioral flexibility of endangered primates as a response to ecological challenges, e.g.,(More)
Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the(More)