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Binding of integrins to ligands provides anchorage and signals for the cell, making them prime candidates for mechanosensing molecules. How force regulates integrin-ligand dissociation is unclear. We used atomic force microscopy to measure the force-dependent lifetimes of single bonds between a fibronectin fragment and an integrin alpha(5)beta(1)-Fc fusion(More)
Early inductive signals within the embryonic mammalian forebrain establish two major germinal regions along the dorsal-ventral axis. The dorsal germinal zone eventually forms the cerebral cortex while the ventral ganglionic eminence primarily forms the striatum and globus pallidus. The mechanisms leading to patterning of specific forebrain structures from(More)
Promotion of repair and regeneration following traumatic brain injury remains a challenging clinical problem. While significant efforts have been made to reduce inhibitory extracellular matrix expression following central nervous system injury, much less attention has been given to the role of endogenous reparative matrix proteins, such as fibronectin.(More)
Hydrogels, highly hydrated cross-linked polymer networks, have emerged as powerful synthetic analogues of extracellular matrices for basic cell studies as well as promising biomaterials for regenerative medicine applications. [1] A critical advantage of these artificial matrices over natural networks is that bioactive functionalities, such as cell adhesive(More)
The aim of this study was to characterize the influence of the aeration conditions on the production of PHB and its molecular mass in a mutant strain of Azotobacter vinelandii (OPN), which carries a mutation on ptsN, the gene encoding enzyme IIANtr, previously shown to increase the accumulation of PHB. Cultures of A. vinelandii wild-type strain OP and its(More)
Binding of integrin adhesion receptors to extracellular matrix components, such as fibronectin and type I collagen, activates signaling pathways directing osteoblast survival, cell-cycle progression, gene expression, and matrix mineralization. Biomimetic strategies exploit these adhesive interactions to engineer bio-inspired surfaces that promote osteoblast(More)
The oft-repeated claim that Earth's biota is entering a sixth "mass extinction" depends on clearly demonstrating that current extinction rates are far above the "background" rates prevailing between the five previous mass extinctions. Earlier estimates of extinction rates have been criticized for using assumptions that might overestimate the severity of the(More)
Social dominance is widely known to facilitate access to food resources in many animal species such as deer. However, research has paid little attention to dominance in ad libitum access to food because it was thought not to result in any benefit for dominant individuals. In this study we assessed if, even under ad libitum conditions, social rank may allow(More)
Microfabrication advances have resulted in small, cheap, and precise devices for biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS). SU-8/SU-8 2000 is an attractive material for these applications because of its high-aspect ratio fabrication capability, dielectric properties, and thermochemical stability. Despite these advantages, the potential toxicity of(More)
Focal adhesions mediate force transfer between ECM-integrin complexes and the cytoskeleton. Although vinculin has been implicated in force transmission, few direct measurements have been made, and there is little mechanistic insight. Using vinculin-null cells expressing vinculin mutants, we demonstrate that vinculin is not required for transmission of(More)