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Olfaction plays a fundamental role in feeding behavior, but changes in olfactory acuity according to feeding states have never been precisely demonstrated in animals. The present study assesses the olfactory detection performance of fasted or satiated rats placed under a strictly controlled food-intake regimen. We did this using a conditioned odor aversion(More)
Numerous peripheral and hypothalamic peptides control food intake. Among these signals are orexin, an orexigenic molecule released into the olfactory bulb by centrifugal hypothalamic fibres and leptin, an anorexigenic molecule that is released peripherally and can pass through the blood-brain barrier. In the present study, we injected either orexin or(More)
Copper at low doses is known to specifically induce olfactory neuron death in fish olfactory epithelium. Using light and electron transmission microscopy, we have investigated the features and the time-course of receptor cell death in rainbow trout exposed for 15 days to 20 mug Cu(2+)/l. Ultrastructural observations demonstrate that degenerating cells,(More)
The development of glio-interstitial cell processes has been studied by quantitative electron microscopy in the anterior byssal retractor muscle of mussels kept in various artificial sea-waters. After 20 days, the number of glio-interstitial processes per unit area of muscle section from animals adapted to diluted sea-water (700 mosM) is not significantly(More)
Kallmann syndrome is a developmental disease characterized by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency and olfactory bulb hypoplasia. The gene underlying the X chromosome-linked form, KAL-1, has been identified for several years, yet the pathogenesis of the disease is not understood. By immunohistofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, we(More)
Using immunocytochemical methods, we have examined extensively the spatial and temporal patterns of expression of three extracellular matrix molecules-laminin, fibronectin, and type IV collagen-in the embryonic, postnatal (days 2 and 11) and adult rat olfactory system. The study started at embryonic day 14 when olfactory fibres and their associated(More)
Topographically localized over-expression of the human Bcl-2 protein in retinal glial Müller cells of a transgenic mice (line 71) leads to early postnatal apoptotic Müller cell death and retinal degeneration. Morphological, immunohistological and confocal laser microscopic examination of transgenic and wild-type retinas were achieved on paraffin retinal(More)
Insulin is involved in multiple regulatory mechanisms, including body weight and food intake, and plays a critical role in metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. An increasing body of evidence indicates that insulin is also involved in the modulation of olfactory function. The olfactory bulb (OB) contains the highest level of insulin and insulin(More)
The Zucker fa/fa rat has been widely used as an animal model to study obesity, since it recapitulates most of its behavioral and metabolic dysfunctions, such as hyperphagia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Although it is well established that olfaction is under nutritional and hormonal influences, little is known about the impact of metabolic(More)
The localization of calcium in cell organelles at the electron microscope level is often achieved through cytochemical techniques, and verified by X-ray microanalysis. Various methods have been used to cytochemically detect calcium or calcium-binding sites: calcium loading, calcium substitution by strontium, barium, or even lead, and calcium precipitation(More)