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Twenty-seven thermophilic and thermotolerant fungal strains were isolated from soil, decaying organic matter and sugarcane piles based on their ability to grow at 45°C on medium containing corn straw and cardboard as carbon sources. These fungi were identified in the genera Aspergillus, Thermomyces, Myceliophthora, Thermomucor and Candida. The majority of(More)
We reassess the coevolution between actinomycete bacteria and fungus-gardening (attine) ants. Actinomycete bacteria are of special interest because they are metabolic mutualists of diverse organisms (e.g., in nitrogen-fixation or antibiotic production) and because Pseudonocardia actinomycetes are thought to serve disease-suppressing functions in attine(More)
BACKGROUND Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are(More)
The genus Mycetagroicus is perhaps the least known of all fungus-growing ant genera, having been first described in 2001 from museum specimens. A recent molecular phylogenetic analysis of the fungus-growing ants demonstrated that Mycetagroicus is the sister to all higher attine ants (Trachymyrmex, Sericomyrmex, Acromyrmex, Pseudoatta, and Atta), making it(More)
The possible roles played by yeasts in attine ant nests are mostly unknown. Here we present our investigations on the plant polysaccharide degradation profile of 82 yeasts isolated from fungus gardens of Atta and Acromyrmex species to demonstrate that yeasts found in ant nests may play the role of making nutrients readily available throughout the garden and(More)
Winged males of leaf-cutting ants are considered an ephemeral reproductive caste only produced before the mating flight season. Although much is known about the yeast diversity found in fungus gardens of attine ants, no study has focused on the yeasts associated with males of leaf-cutting ants. Here, we surveyed the yeasts on the integuments of males of(More)
Enzyme production varies in different fermentation systems. Enzyme expression in different fermentation systems yields important information for improving our understanding of enzymatic production induction. Comparative studies between solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial waste wheat bran and submerged fermentation (SmF) using synthetic(More)
The mandibular gland secretion (MGS) and the faecal fluid (FF) of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa Forel affected the spore germination of selected microfungi isolated from nests of this insect. MGS was more effective than the FF, completely inhibiting the spore germination of four out of six microfungi species.
Since the formal description of fungi in the genus Escovopsis in 1990, only a few studies have focused on the systematics of this group. For more than two decades, only two Escovopsis species were described; however, in 2013, three additional Escovopsis species were formally described along with the genus Escovopsioides, both found exclusively in attine ant(More)
The cell wall in plants offers protection against invading organisms and is mainly composed of the polysaccharides pectin, cellulose, and hemicellulose, which can be degraded by plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs). Such enzymes are often synthesized by free living microorganisms or endosymbionts that live in the gut of some animals, including certain(More)