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Pangaea is a system that can distribute centralized Java programs, based on static source code analysis and using arbitrary distribution platforms, such as RMI or CORBA, as a backend. Pangaea takes the idea of distribution transparency one logical step further: both the decision for an appropriate distribution strategy for a program, and the realization of(More)
Passing parameter objects by value can reduce the number of remote method invocations in a distributed system. It is a simple alternative to full-fledged object migration, implemented for example in Java/RMI and currently being added to CORBA as well. In this paper, we answer the question: When exactly does it pay off to pass an object by value, instead of(More)
The influence of intestinal worm infections on malaria was studied in individuals from Dielmo, Senegal in 1998. Results suggest that, compared with those infected, individuals free of helminths had the same degree of protection against malaria as that provided by sickle-cell trait, the most potent factor of resistance to malaria identified to date.
The spread of antimalarial drug resistance has major consequences for malaria control in tropical Africa. Here, the impact of chloroquine resistance on the burden of malaria is analyzed and its implications for the Roll Back Malaria initiative are examined. Malaria mortality has increased at least twofold during the past two decades. Combination therapy(More)
Cytophilic antibodies (Abs) play a critical role in protection against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages, yet little is known about the parameters regulating production of these Abs. We used an in vitro culture system to study the subclass distribution of antigen (Ag)-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate treatment practices with antimalarials are considered major contributors to Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine, pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine. The longitudinal survey conducted in Dielmo, a rural Senegalese community, offers a unique frame to explore the impact of strictly controlled and quantified antimalarial use for(More)
BACKGROUND A better understanding of the effect of malaria control interventions on vector and parasite populations, acquired immunity, and burden of the disease is needed to guide strategies to eliminate malaria from highly endemic areas. We monitored and analysed the changes in malaria epidemiology in a village community in Senegal, west Africa, over 22(More)
Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes may vary considerably in their severity and clinical manifestations. There is good evidence that host genetic factors contribute to this variability. To date, most genetic studies aiming at the identification of these genes have used a case/control study design for severe malaria, exploring specific candidate genes.(More)