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Between 1981 and 2000, 6609 children (<18 years of age) were treated in five consecutive trials of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) study group for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Patients were treated in up to 82 centers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Probability of 10-year event-free survival (EFS) (survival) improved from 65% (77%)(More)
The prognostic value of MRD in large series of childhood T-ALL has not yet been established. Trial AIEOP-BFM-ALL 2000 introduced standardized quantitative assessment of MRD for stratification, based on immunoglobulin and TCR gene rearrangements as polymerase chain reaction targets: Patients were considered MRD standard risk (MRD-SR) if MRD was negative at(More)
Assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) has acquired a prominent position in European treatment protocols for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), on the basis of its high prognostic value for predicting outcome and the possibilities for implementation of MRD diagnostics in treatment stratification. Therefore, there is an increasing need(More)
Open questions in the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are which hematopoietic cell is target of the malignant transformation and whether primitive stem cells contribute to the leukemic clone. Although good-prognosis ALL is thought to originate in a lymphoid progenitor, it is unclear if this applies to high-risk ALL. Therefore,(More)
CONTEXT Early response to multiagent chemotherapy, including mercaptopurine, as measured by minimal residual disease is an important prognostic factor for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is involved in the metabolism of mercaptopurine and subject to genetic polymorphism, with heterozygous individuals(More)
Treatment resistance, as indicated by the presence of high levels of minimal residual disease (MRD) after induction therapy and induction consolidation, is associated with a poor prognosis in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We hypothesized that treatment resistance is an intrinsic feature of ALL cells reflected in the gene expression pattern(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatic veno-occlusive disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We aimed to assess whether defibrotide can reduce the incidence of veno-occlusive disease in this setting. METHODS In our phase 3 open-label, randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients at 28 European(More)
Detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) is the most sensitive method to evaluate treatment response and one of the strongest predictors of outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The 10-year update on the I-BFM-SG MRD study 91 demonstrates stable results (event-free survival), that is, standard risk group (MRD-SR) 93%, intermediate risk(More)
We report a retrospective analysis of 11 children with Down syndrome (DS) treated by SCT in eight German/Austrian SCT centres. Indications for transplantation were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (N=8) and acute myeloid leukaemia (N=3). A reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) containing 2 Gy TBI was given to two patients, another five received a myeloablative(More)
We examined the leukemic stem cell potential of blasts at different stages of maturation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Human leukemic bone marrow was transplanted intrafemorally into NOD/scid mice. Cells sorted using the B precursor differentiation markers CD19, CD20, and CD34 were isolated from patient samples and engrafted mice before(More)