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The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned(More)
Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for embryonic midbrain dopaminergic, spinal motor, cranial sensory, sympathetic, and hindbrain noradrenergic neurons, and is available to these cells in vivo. It is therefore considered a physiological trophic factor and a potential therapeutic agent for Parkinson's disease,(More)
The locus for the incomplete form of X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2) maps to a 1.1-Mb region in Xp11.23 between markers DXS722 and DXS255. We identified a retina-specific calcium channel alpha1-subunit gene (CACNA1F) in this region, consisting of 48 exons encoding 1966 amino acids and showing high homology to L-type calcium channel(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a distant member of the TGFbeta protein family that is essential for neuronal survival and renal morphogenesis. We show that mice who are deficient in the glycosyl-phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) -linked protein GFRalpha1 (GDNFRalpha) display deficits in the kidneys, the enteric nervous system, and spinal(More)
Basal-cell carcinomas (BCCs) are the commonest human cancer. Insight into their genesis came from identification of mutations in the PATCHED gene (PTCH) in patients with the basal-cell nevus syndrome, a hereditary disease characterized by multiple BCCs and by developmental abnormalities. The binding of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) to its receptor, PTCH, is thought(More)
The human X chromosome has a unique biology that was shaped by its evolution as the sex chromosome shared by males and females. We have determined 99.3% of the euchromatic sequence of the X chromosome. Our analysis illustrates the autosomal origin of the mammalian sex chromosomes, the stepwise process that led to the progressive loss of recombination(More)
Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for central and peripheral neurons, and is essential for the development of kidneys and the enteric nervous system. Despite the potential clinical and physiological importance of GDNF, its mechanism of action is unknown. Here we show that physiological responses to GDNF require(More)
Zebra fish may be an ideal vertebrate model system for numerous human diseases with which the genetics and biological mechanisms of the disease may be studied. Zebra fish has been successfully used in developmental genetics, and recently, neurobiologists have also started to study this species. A potentially interesting target disease amenable for analysis(More)
alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) is a 14 kDa protein of unknown function that has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we show that alpha-Syn-/- mice are viable and fertile, exhibit intact brain architecture, and possess a normal complement of dopaminergic cell bodies, fibers, and synapses. Nigrostriatal terminals of(More)
The mechanism by which pluripotent progenitors give rise to distinct classes of mature neurons in vertebrates is not well understood. To address this issue we undertook a genetic screen for mutations which affect the commitment and differentiation of catecholaminergic (CA) [dopaminergic (DA), noradrenergic (NA), and adrenergic] neurons in the zebrafish,(More)