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We have examined the mechanism of thalidomide inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor ot (TNF<~) production and found that the drug enhances the degradation of TNF-oe mRNA. Thus, the half-life of the molecule was reduced from "o30 to ~o17 rain in the presence of 50/zg/ml of thalidomide. Inhibition of TNF-ot production was(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote intracellular infection, including human visceral leishmaniasis, by disabling Th1 cell-type responses and/or deactivating parasitized tissue macrophages. To develop a rationale for IL-10 inhibition as treatment in visceral infection, Th1 cytokine-driven responses were characterized in Leishmania donovani-infected(More)
Tunneling nanotubes are long, non-adherent F-actin-based cytoplasmic extensions which connect proximal or distant cells and facilitate intercellular transfer. The identification of nanotubes has been limited to cell lines, and their role in cancer remains unclear. We detected tunneling nanotubes in mesothelioma cell lines and primary human mesothelioma(More)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which unleash a patient's own T cells to kill tumors, are revolutionizing cancer treatment. To unravel the genomic determinants of response to this therapy, we used whole-exome sequencing of non-small cell lung cancers treated with pembrolizumab, an antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). In two independent cohorts,(More)
Immunohistochemistry is increasingly utilized to differentiate lung adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. However, detailed analysis of coexpression profiles of commonly used markers in large series of whole-tissue sections is lacking. Furthermore, the optimal diagnostic algorithm, particularly the minimal-marker combination, is not firmly(More)
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans results in active disease in approximately 10% of immune-competent individuals, with the most-severe clinical manifestations observed when the bacilli infect the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we use a rabbit model of tuberculous meningitis to evaluate the severity of disease caused by the M.(More)
Purpose: There is persistent controversy as to whether EGFR and KRAS mutations occur in pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC). We hypothesized that the reported variability may reflect difficulties in the pathologic distinction of true SQCC from adenosquamous carcinoma (AD-SQC) and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma due to incomplete sampling or(More)
Host defense against mycobacterial infection requires the participation of monocytes and T cells. Both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been shown to be important in resistance to mycobacterial infection in vivo. The main contribution of CD4+ T cells to the protective antituberculosis response involves the production of Th1-type cytokines, including interleukin-2(More)
BACKGROUND Because associations have been reported between inhaled ambient ultrafine particles and increased risk of cardiopulmonary disease, it has been suggested that inhaled engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may also induce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. OBJECTIVE We examined the long-term cardiovascular effects of inhaled nickel hydroxide(More)
Angiogenesis is a crucial process in inflammatory reactions as well as in tumor implantation and growth. Tumors with high rates of invasion and recurrence such as gliomas, are specially dependent on neovascularization. This suggests that inhibition of angiogenesis might reduce the growth of these tumors. Thalidomide has been previously shown to inhibit(More)