André Kipnis

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Recent evidence suggests that absence of the IL-12p40 subunit is more detrimental to the generation of protective responses than is the absence of the p35 subunit. To determine whether this is the case in tuberculosis, both p35 and p40 knockout mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mice lacking the p40 subunit were highly susceptible to(More)
The influx of macrophages into the lungs is the major component of the granulomatous response to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this investigation we used flow cytometric analysis to define macrophage populations entering the airways and lung tissues of infected mice. We demonstrate that by the judicious use of cell surface markers,(More)
The production of immunosuppressive cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-beta, has been documented in individuals diagnosed with active tuberculosis. In addition, IL-10 production is increased within the lungs of mice that have chronic mycobacterial infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that the down-regulatory properties of IL-10 might contribute to the(More)
The biodiversity of entomopathogenic fungi in tropical ecosystems is still little investigated, and the objective of this study was to isolate and identify fungi of the entomopathogenic genus Metarhizium (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) present in undisturbed soils of the Central Brazilian Cerrado. A total of 107 Metarhizium isolates was obtained from soils(More)
Both innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to host defense against infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NK cells have been associated with early resistance against intracellular pathogens and are known to be potent producers of the cytokine IFN-gamma. In C57BL/6 mice infected by aerosol exposure with M. tuberculosis, NK cells increased in the(More)
BACKGROUND 10-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine/PCV10 was introduced in the Brazilian National Immunization Program along the year of 2010. We assessed the direct effectiveness of PCV10 vaccination in preventing nasopharyngeal/NP pneumococcal carriage in infants. METHODS A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted in Goiania(More)
Chemokines play an important role in the development of immunity to tuberculosis. Chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, JE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) is thought to be primarily responsible for recruiting monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells and activated T cells, all of which play critical roles in the effective control of tuberculosis infection(More)
AIM Our aim is to investigate if the clusters of postsurgical mycobacterial infections, reported between 2004 and 2008 in seven geographically distant states in Brazil, were caused by a single mycobacterial strain. MATERIALS & METHODS Available information from 929 surgical patients was obtained from local health authorities. A total of 152 isolates from(More)
The ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to grow in macrophages is central to its pathogenicity. We found previously that the widespread 210 strain of M. tuberculosis grew more rapidly than other strains in human macrophages. Because principal sigma factors influence virulence in some bacteria, we analysed mRNA expression of the principal sigma factor,(More)
Investigations regarding Staphylococcus aureus carriage among Brazilian children are scarce. We evaluated the determinants of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage in infants attending day care centers (DCCs) and the molecular features of the MRSA strains. A total of 1,192 children aged 2 months to 5 years attending 62 DCCs(More)