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Vaccination with naked DNA may be an alternative to conventional vaccines because it combines the efficacy of attenuated vaccines with the biological safety of inactivated vaccines. We recently showed that the vaccination with naked DNA coding for the immunorelevant glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) induced both antibody and cell-mediated(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the role of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) against an influenza H1N1 virus in the clinical protection of piglets and especially their effect on the development of the active immunity after an infection with a homologous influenza H1N1 virus. Twenty piglets with MDA and 10 piglets without MDA were housed together(More)
The level of heterosubtypic immunity (Het-I) and the immune mechanisms stimulated by a heterosubtypic influenza virus infection were investigated in pigs. Pigs are natural hosts for influenza virus and, like humans, they host both subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Marked Het-I was observed when pigs were infected with H1N1 and subsequently challenged with H3N2. After(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate spontaneous immunoglobulin production and a pattern of isotype switching by thymic B lymphocytes (TBL) as compared with cells isolated from spleen during early ontogeny using a pig model in which B-cell development is not influenced by maternal regulatory factors. A sensitive ELISPOT assay was therefore employed to(More)
Using immunohistological techniques, we studied the development over time of B- and T-cell compartments in the lymphoid organs of specific-pathogen-free pigs. Tissue samples were collected at various time-points, starting 2 days before the pigs were born until the pigs were 10 months old. The samples were collected from the spleen, thymus, peripheral lymph(More)
Immunoglobulin (Ig) response to different polyclonal B-cell activators was measured by ELISA in cell culture media of thymocytes, splenocytes and liver cells isolated from pig fetuses, 8-d-old germ-free piglets and conventionally reared pigs. Both in fetal and in postnatal life polyclonally stimulated lymphocytes were found to produce predominantly the IgM(More)
In mice, vaccines inducing antibodies to the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e) can confer protection to influenza A virus infection. Unlike the surface glycoproteins, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase, this domain of M2 is highly conserved and is therefore a potential broad-spectrum immunogen. In this study, the protection conferred by vaccines(More)
We studied with a mouse model and in piglets the requirements to prime for a secondary, mucosal B-cell response against Escherichia coli F4 fimbriae, an important virulence factor of enterotoxigenic E. coli, the agent associated with postweaning diarrhoea in piglets. The major observation obtained with the mouse model was verified for piglets. Mice and(More)
Antigenic drift of swine influenza A (H3N2) viruses away from the human A/Port Chalmers/1/73 (H3N2) strain, used in current commercial swine influenza vaccines, has been demonstrated in The Netherlands and Belgium. Therefore, replacement of this human strain by a more recent swine H3N2 isolate has to be considered. In this study, the efficacy of a current(More)