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Highly immunogenic cancers such as malignant melanoma are capable of inexorable tumor growth despite the presence of antitumor immunity. Thus, only a restricted minority of tumorigenic malignant cells may possess the phenotypic and functional characteristics needed to modulate tumor-directed immune activation. Here we provide evidence supporting this(More)
OBJECTIVE Activation of P2Y2 receptors in airway epithelia by ATP and UTP stimulates a Ca2+-regulated Cl- channel, which regulates Cl- secretion in cystic fibrosis (CF). We hypothesized that genetic alterations in the P2Y2 receptor may act as disease modifiers in CF and thus analyzed the coding region of this gene for polymorphisms in 146 CF patients and 64(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Rapidly establishing the cause of neonatal cholestasis is an urgent matter. The aim of this study was to report on the prevalence and mortality of the diverse disorders causing neonatal cholestasis in an academic center in Germany. METHODS Clinical chemistry and cause of disease were retrospectively analyzed in 82 infants (male n(More)
HEV infection appears to be an emerging disease in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HEV infection in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. One hundred and twenty-four pediatric recipients of liver (n = 41) or kidney (n = 83) transplants aged between one and 18 yr were screened for anti-HEV IgG(More)
OBJECTIVE To prospectively investigate the prevalence of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), the importance of pulse oximetry in diagnosing HPS, and the longitudinal course after liver transplantation in children with cirrhosis referred for liver transplantation. STUDY DESIGN Fifty-six patients aged 1-17 years (mean age, 4.6 ± 5.0 years) with liver cirrhosis(More)
OBJECTIVES Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by B cell-dependent autoantibody production. Recently, a new B-cell subset was discovered that has a regulatory capacity. The aim of this study was to analyse regulatory B cells (Bregs) in SLE patients. METHOD Peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PBMCs) of 34 SLE patients(More)
The target of rapamycin (TOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that controls cell growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, growth factors, cellular energy, and stress. The TOR kinase, which was originally discovered in yeast, is also expressed in human cells as mammalian TOR (mTOR). In this review, we focus on how mTOR-inducible signals(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) migrate into peripheral sites of inflammation such as allografts undergoing rejection, where they serve to suppress the immune response. In this study, we find that ∼30-40% of human CD25(hi) FOXP3(+) CD4(+) Tregs express the peripheral CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and that this subset has potent immunoregulatory properties.(More)
Cholestatic jaundice in early infancy is a complex diagnostic problem. Misdiagnosis of cholestasis as physiologic jaundice delays the identification of severe liver diseases. In the majority of infants, prolonged physiologic jaundice represent benign cases of breast milk jaundice, but few among them are masked and caused by neonatal cholestasis (NC) that(More)
In this study, we find that CD45RO+ memory populations of CD4+ T lymphocytes express the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors KDR and Flt-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, by Western blot analysis, we find that VEGF increases the phosphorylation and activation of ERK and Akt within CD4+CD45RO+ T cells. These VEGF-mediated(More)