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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT(More)
CONTEXT In humans, the prevalence, mass, and glucose-uptake activity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-detected brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are expectedly enhanced by a cold stimulus, also appear modulated by other factors that still have to be disentangled. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the factors determining the(More)
The present article represents the 2009 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult.
Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations(More)
The associations between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well documented. Free fatty acids (FFA), which are often elevated in obesity, have been implicated as an important link in these associations. Contrary to muscle glucose metabolism, the effects of FFA on hepatic glucose metabolism and the associated mechanisms have not(More)
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) are the two primary pathophysiological abnormalities leading to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Over the past two decades, a large body of work has implicated enhanced delivery of fatty acids to non-adipose tissues in the development of both IR and impaired GSIS. As(More)
The primary genetic, environmental, and metabolic factors responsible for causing insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell failure and the precise sequence of events leading to the development of type 2 diabetes are not yet fully understood. Abnormalities of triglyceride storage and lipolysis in insulin-sensitive tissues are an early manifestation of(More)
PURPOSE Despite current advances in PET/CT systems, blood sampling still remains the standard method to obtain the radiotracer input function for tracer kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of image-derived input functions (IDIF) of the carotid and femoral arteries to measure the arterial input function (AIF) in PET imaging.(More)
One important mechanism whereby obesity-associated insulin resistance leads to VLDL overproduction is thought to be by the increased flux of free fatty acids (FFAs) from extrahepatic tissues to liver, which arises as a direct consequence of impaired insulin action in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The aim of the present study was to address whether(More)
The brown adipocyte is a thermogenic cell. Its thermogenic potential is conferred by uncoupling protein-1, which 'uncouples' adenosine triphosphate synthesis from energy substrate oxidation. Brown fat cells in so-called classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) share their origin with myogenic factor-5-expressing myoblasts. The development of myocyte/brown(More)