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CONTEXT In humans, the prevalence, mass, and glucose-uptake activity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-detected brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are expectedly enhanced by a cold stimulus, also appear modulated by other factors that still have to be disentangled. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to investigate the factors determining the(More)
The present article represents the 2009 update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease in the adult.
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT(More)
Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations(More)
The primary genetic, environmental, and metabolic factors responsible for causing insulin resistance and pancreatic beta-cell failure and the precise sequence of events leading to the development of type 2 diabetes are not yet fully understood. Abnormalities of triglyceride storage and lipolysis in insulin-sensitive tissues are an early manifestation of(More)
A novel animal model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed Syrian golden hamster, was employed to investigate the mechanisms mediating the overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in the insulin resistant state. Fructose feeding for a 2-week period induced significant hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia, and the development of whole(More)
PURPOSE Despite current advances in PET/CT systems, blood sampling still remains the standard method to obtain the radiotracer input function for tracer kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of image-derived input functions (IDIF) of the carotid and femoral arteries to measure the arterial input function (AIF) in PET imaging.(More)
The associations between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well documented. Free fatty acids (FFA), which are often elevated in obesity, have been implicated as an important link in these associations. Contrary to muscle glucose metabolism, the effects of FFA on hepatic glucose metabolism and the associated mechanisms have not(More)
OBJECT The authors undertook a study to evaluate the effectiveness of endoscopic third ventriculostomy in the management of hydrocephalus before and after surgical intervention for posterior fossa tumors in children. METHODS Between October 1, 1993, and December 31, 1997, a total of 206 consecutive children with posterior fossa tumors underwent surgery at(More)
The brown adipocyte is a thermogenic cell. Its thermogenic potential is conferred by uncoupling protein-1, which 'uncouples' adenosine triphosphate synthesis from energy substrate oxidation. Brown fat cells in so-called classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) share their origin with myogenic factor-5-expressing myoblasts. The development of myocyte/brown(More)