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Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations(More)
The aim of this review is to explore the dysregulation of adrenocortical secretions as a major contributor in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Disturbance of adipose tissue physiology is one of the primary events in the development of pathologies associated with the metabolic syndrome, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Several studies(More)
Brown adipocytes are specialized cells capable of undergoing thermogenesis, a phenomenon regulated by the sympathetic nervous system, due to the presence of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The recent demonstrations of their presence in adult humans, and the discovery that brown adipocytes can be derived from distinct precursors and express specific genes(More)
The associations between obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus are well documented. Free fatty acids (FFA), which are often elevated in obesity, have been implicated as an important link in these associations. Contrary to muscle glucose metabolism, the effects of FFA on hepatic glucose metabolism and the associated mechanisms have not(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine in vivo myocardial energy metabolism and function in a nutritional model of type 2 diabetes. Wistar rats rendered insulin-resistant and mildly hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hypertriglyceridemic with a high-fructose/high-fat diet over a 6-wk period with injection of a small dose of streptozotocin (HFHFS) and(More)
Our recent in vivo observations in healthy nonobese humans have demonstrated that prolonged elevation of plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) results in diminished glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) when the FFA-mediated decrease in insulin sensitivity is taken into account. In the present study, we investigated whether obese individuals and patients(More)
The phenomenon of lipid-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction ("lipotoxicity") has been very well documented in numerous in vitro experimental systems and has become widely accepted. In vivo demonstration of β-cell lipotoxicity, on the other hand, has not been consistently demonstrated, and there remains a lack of consensus regarding the in vivo effects of(More)
PURPOSE Despite current advances in PET/CT systems, blood sampling still remains the standard method to obtain the radiotracer input function for tracer kinetic modelling. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of image-derived input functions (IDIF) of the carotid and femoral arteries to measure the arterial input function (AIF) in PET imaging.(More)
CONTEXT Recent studies examining brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism in adult humans have provided convincing evidence of its thermogenic potential and role in clearing circulating glucose and fatty acids under acute mild cold exposure. In contrast, early indications suggest that BAT metabolism is defective in obesity and type 2 diabetes, which may have(More)
During the fasting state, insulin reduces nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) appearance in the systemic circulation mostly by suppressing intracellular lipolysis in the adipose tissue. In the postprandial state, insulin may also control NEFA appearance through enhanced trapping into the adipose tissue of NEFA derived from intravascular triglyceride lipolysis.(More)