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A Spatial Query Language enables the spatial analysis of Building Information Models and the extraction of partial models that fulfill certain spatial constraints. Among other features, the developed spatial query language includes topological operators, i.e. operators that reflect the topological relationships between 3D spatial objects. The paper presents(More)
The paper introduces the concept of a spatial query language for building information models (BIMs) and motivates its development. It provides formal definitions using point set theory and point set topology for 3D spatial data types as well as the directional, topological, metric and Boolean operators employed with these types. It also serves to outline(More)
In this paper, an overall framework for crowd analysis is presented. Detection and tracking of pedestrians as well as detection of dense crowds is performed on image sequences to improve simulation models of pedestrian flows. Additionally, graph-based event detection is performed by using Hidden Markov Models on pedestrian trajectories utilizing knowledge(More)
The paper describes the definition and implementation of topological operators which form part of a 3D Spatial Query Language that has been developed to query Building Information Models using spatial conditions. The partial models resulting from spatial queries can be used as input for numerical simulations and as exclusively modifiable subsets in the(More)
For the spatial design of buildings as well as for the layout of large event areas, the 9 crowd behaviour of the future users plays a significant role. The designing engineer has to make 10 sure that potentially critical situations, such as high densities in pedestrian crowds, are avoided in 11 order to guarantee the integrity, safety and comfort of the(More)
This paper presents a novel methodology which assists in automating the generation of time schedules for bridge construction projects. The method is based on a simulation of construction works, taking into account the available resources and the interdependencies between individual tasks. The simulation is realized by means of a discrete-event simulation(More)