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New therapeutic targets for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. The gut microbial community (microbiota) is essential for processing dietary polysaccharides. We found that conventionalization of adult germ-free (GF) C57BL/6 mice with a normal microbiota harvested from the(More)
The Cre/loxP system has become an important tool in designing postintegrational switch mechanisms for transgenes in mice. The power and spectrum of application of this system depends on transgenic mouse lines that provide Cre recombinase activity with a defined cell type-, tissue-, or developmental stage-specificity. We have developed a novel mouse line(More)
Several newly generated mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell lines were tested for their ability to produce completely ES cell-derived mice at early passage numbers by ES cell <==> tetraploid embryo aggregation. One line, designated R1, produced live offspring which were completely ES cell-derived as judged by isoenzyme analysis and coat color. These cell(More)
The trophoblast cell lineage is essential for the survival of the mammalian embryo in utero. This lineage is specified before implantation into the uterus and is restricted to form the fetal portion of the placenta. A culture of mouse blastocysts or early postimplantation trophoblasts in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) permitted the(More)
We have used a Prx1 limb enhancer to drive expression of Cre Recombinase in transgenic mice. This regulatory element leads to Cre expression throughout the early limb bud mesenchyme and in a subset of craniofacial mesenchyme. Crossing a murine line carrying this transgene to a reporter mouse harboring a floxed Cre-reporter cassette revealed that recombinase(More)
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by expression of defined embryonic factors. However, little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming process. Here we explore somatic cell reprogramming by exploiting a secondary mouse embryonic fibroblast model that forms iPSCs with high efficiency upon(More)
The endothelial cell-specific vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its cellular receptors Flt-1 and Flk-1 have been implicated in the formation of the embryonic vasculature. This is suggested by their colocalized expression during embryogenesis and the impaired vessel formation in Flk-1 and Flt-1 deficient embryos. However, because Flt-1 also binds(More)
The Cre/loxP site-specific recombination system combined with embryonic stem cell-mediated technologies has greatly expanded our capability to address normal and disease development in mammals using genetic approaches. The success of this emerging technology hinges on the production of Cre-expressing transgenic lines that provide cell type-, tissue-, or(More)
The outer layer of the blastocyst, or trophectoderm, is the first cell lineage to differentiate in the mouse embryo, but little is known about the genetic control of its development. Lineage-specific transcription factors may be important in lineage specification, and the product of the Mash-2 gene fulfils the criteria for such a factor. Mash-2 is a(More)
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reproducibly associated variants within introns of FTO with increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although the molecular mechanisms linking these noncoding variants with obesity are not immediately obvious, subsequent studies in mice demonstrated that FTO expression levels influence body mass and(More)