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Electrostatic interactions with negatively charged membranes contribute to the subcellular targeting of proteins with polybasic clusters or cationic domains. Although the anionic phospholipid phosphatidylserine is comparatively abundant, its contribution to the surface charge of individual cellular membranes is unknown, partly because of the lack of(More)
Four distinct isoforms of the mammalian Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE) have been identified by molecular cloning. Three of these (NHE-1, NHE-2, and NHE-3) have been shown to be functionally active by heterologous expression. Their kinetic and pharmacological properties are well documented, yet comparatively little is known about their regulation. In this report,(More)
The surface potential of biological membranes varies according to their lipid composition. We devised genetically encoded probes to assess surface potential in intact cells. These probes revealed marked, localized alterations in the charge of the inner surface of the plasma membrane of macrophages during the course of phagocytosis. Hydrolysis of(More)
Cell volume affects diverse functions including cytoskeletal organization, but the underlying signaling pathways remained undefined. We have shown previously that shrinkage induces Fyn-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the cortical actin-binding protein, cortactin. Because FER kinase was implicated in the direct phosphorylation of cortactin, we(More)
Injury of the tubular epithelium and TGF-beta1-induced conversion of epithelial cells to alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-expressing myofibroblasts are key features of kidney fibrosis. Since injury damages intercellular junctions and promotes fibrosis, we hypothesized that cell contacts are critical regulators of TGF-beta 1-triggered(More)
Phagocytes generate large amounts of metabolic acid during activation. Therefore, the presence of a conductive pathway capable of H+ extrusion has been suggested (Henderson, L. M., J. B. Chappell, and O. T. G. Jones. 1987. Biochemical Journal. 246:325-329). In this report, electrophysiological and fluorimetric methods were used to probe the existence of a(More)
The regulation of N-cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesion strength in fibroblasts is poorly characterized; this is due, in part, to a lack of available quantitative models. We used a recombinant N-cadherin chimeric protein and a Rat 2 fibroblast, donor-acceptor cell model, to study the importance of cortical actin filaments and cortactin in the(More)
Cell volume and shape are stringently regulated. This homeostasis requires the cells to sense their size and shape and to convey this information to effectors that will counteract deformations induced by osmotic or mechanical challenges. The sensors, transducers, and effectors of volume change are the subject of this review.
Pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) is a highly conserved 52-kDa protein, originally identified as a growth factor for early stage B cells. We show here that PBEF is also upregulated in neutrophils by IL-1beta and functions as a novel inhibitor of apoptosis in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Induction of PBEF occurs 5-10 hours after LPS(More)
In pressure or volume overload, hypertrophic growth of the myocardium is associated with myofibroblast differentiation, a process in which cardiac fibroblasts express smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA). The signaling mechanisms that mediate force-induced myofibroblast differentiation and SMA expression are not defined. We examined the role of the(More)