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The apparent position, size, and shape of aerial objects viewed binocularly from water change as a result of the refraction of light at the water surface. Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes. Here we calculate the(More)
The paper presents a hierarchical object recognition system for document processing. It is based on a spatial tree structure representation and Bayesian framework. The image components are built up from lower level image components stored in a library. The tree representations of the objects are assembled from these components. A probabilistic framework is(More)
Between AD 900 and AD 1200 Vikings, being able to navigate skillfully across the open sea, were the dominant seafarers of the North Atlantic. When the Sun was shining, geographical north could be determined with a special sundial. However, how the Vikings could have navigated in cloudy or foggy situations, when the Sun's disc was unusable, is still not(More)
It is widely accepted that Vikings used sun-compasses to derive true directions from the cast shadow of a gnomon. It has been hypothesized that when a cast shadow was not formed, Viking navigators relied on crude skylight polarimetry with the aid of dichroic or birefringent crystals, called "sunstones." We demonstrate here that a simple tool, that we call(More)
Although the tabanid species and populations occurring in eastern central Europe (Carpathian Basin) are thoroughly studied, there are only sporadic data about the influence of weather conditions on the abundance and activity of horseflies. To fill in this lack, in Hungary, we performed a 3-month summer survey of horsefly catches registering the weather(More)
The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black(More)
If a human looks at the clear blue sky from which light with high enough degree of polarization d originates, an 8-shaped bowtie-like figure, the yellow Haidinger's brush can be perceived, the long axis of which points towards the sun. A band of high d arcs across the sky at 90° from the sun. A person can pick two points on that band, observe the yellow(More)
Photovoltaic solar panels represent one of the most promising renewable energy sources, but are strong reflectors of horizontally polarized light. Polarized light pollution (PLP) associated with solar panels causes aquatic insects to prefer to oviposit on panels over natural water bodies, with potential to negatively impact their global populations as solar(More)
The paper presents a statistical learning system based visual solution developed and applied for fault detection in industrial environment. As a mobile vision system the area of use was the automatic detection of rare faults in complex assembled objects. The object detection, the fore- and background separation, and the multi-model database enables the(More)