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A genetic test was performed on seeds from 283 transgenic tobacco plants obtained by T-DNA transformation. Seeds from self-fertilized transgenic plants were germinated on kanamycin-containing medium, and the percentage of seeds which germinated, as well as the ratio of kanamycin-resistant to kanamycin-sensitive seedlings were scored. Nine categories of(More)
The perception of skylight polarization in the ultraviolet (UV) by many insect species for orientation purposes is rather surprising, because both the degree of linear polarization and the radiance of light from the clear sky are considerably lower in the UV than in the blue or green. In this work we call this the "UV-sky-pol paradox". Although in the past,(More)
Horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can cause severe problems for humans and livestock because of the continuous annoyance performed and the diseases vectored by the haematophagous females. Therefore, effective horsefly traps are in large demand, especially for stock-breeders. To catch horseflies, several kinds of traps have been developed, many of them(More)
Trapping flies with sticky paper sheets is an ancient method. The classic flypaper has four typical characteristics: (i) its sticky paper is bright (chamois, light yellow or white), (ii) it is strip-shaped, (iii) it hangs vertically, and (iv) it is positioned high (several metres) above ground level. Such flypapers, however, do not trap horseflies(More)
For elimination of the shortcomings of imaging polarimeters that take the necessary three pictures sequentially through linear-polarization filters, a three-lens, three-camera, full-sky imaging polarimeter was designed that takes the required pictures simultaneously. With this polarimeter, celestial polarization patterns can be measured even if rapid(More)
The celestial polarization pattern may be scrambled by refraction at the air-water interface. This polarization pattern was examined in shallow waters with a submersible polarimeter, and it was calculated by using land measurements ('semiempirical predictions') and models of the skylight polarization. Semiempirically predicted and measured e-vector(More)
In the clear sky there are three commonly known loci, the Arago, Babinet, and Brewster neutral points, where the skylight is unpolarized. These peculiar celestial points, bearing the names of their discoverers, have been the subject of many ground-based investigations, because their positions are sensitive indicators of the amount and type of atmospheric(More)
Between AD 900 and AD 1200 Vikings, being able to navigate skillfully across the open sea, were the dominant seafarers of the North Atlantic. When the Sun was shining, geographical north could be determined with a special sundial. However, how the Vikings could have navigated in cloudy or foggy situations, when the Sun's disc was unusable, is still not(More)
In the late 1960s it was hypothesized that Vikings had been able to navigate the open seas, even when the sun was occluded by clouds or below the sea horizon, by using the angle of polarization of skylight. To detect the direction of skylight polarization, they were thought to have made use of birefringent crystals, called "sun-stones," and a large part of(More)
It is widely accepted that Vikings used sun-compasses to derive true directions from the cast shadow of a gnomon. It has been hypothesized that when a cast shadow was not formed, Viking navigators relied on crude skylight polarimetry with the aid of dichroic or birefringent crystals, called "sunstones." We demonstrate here that a simple tool, that we call(More)