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To date, almost all experimental evaluations of machine learning-based recognition algorithms in computer vision have taken the form of “closed set” recognition, whereby all testing classes are known at training time. A more realistic scenario for vision applications is “open set” recognition, where incomplete knowledge of the(More)
Contemporary Vision and Pattern Recognition problems such as face recognition, fingerprinting identification, image categoriza-tion, and DNA sequencing often have an arbitrarily large number of classes and properties to consider. To deal with such complex problems using just one feature descriptor is a difficult task and feature fusion may become mandatory.(More)
For decades, photographs have been used to document space-time events and they have often served as evidence in courts. Although photographers are able to create composites of analog pictures, this process is very time consuming and requires expert knowledge. Today, however, powerful digital image editing software makes image modifications straightforward.(More)
Biometrics systems have significantly improved person identification and authentication, playing an important role in personal, national, and global security. However, these systems might be deceived (or spoofed) and, despite the recent advances in spoofing detection, current solutions often rely on domain knowledge, specific biometric reading systems, and(More)
In this paper, we present an algorithm to detect the presence of diabetic retinopathy (DR)-related lesions from fundus images based on a common analytical approach that is capable of identifying both red and bright lesions without requiring specific pre- or postprocessing. Our solution constructs a visual word dictionary representing points of interest(More)
Despite important recent advances, the vulnerability of biometric systems to spoofing attacks is still an open problem. Spoof attacks occur when impostor users present synthetic biometric samples of a valid user to the biometric system seeking to deceive it. Considering the case of face biometrics, a spoofing attack consists in presenting a fake sample(More)
Spoofing identities using photographs is one of the most common techniques to attack 2-D face recognition systems. There seems to exist no comparative studies of different techniques using the same protocols and data. The motivation behind this competition is to compare the performance of different state-of-the-art algorithms on the same database using a(More)
Digital images are everywhere—from our cell phones to the pages of our online news sites. How we choose to use digital image processing raises a surprising host of legal and ethical questions that we must address. What are the ramifications of hiding data within an innocent image? Is this an intentional security practice when used legitimately,(More)
As a crucial security problem, anti-spoofing in biomet-rics, and particularly for the face modality, has achieved great progress in the recent years. Still, new threats arrive in form of better, more realistic and more sophisticated spoofing attacks. The objective of the 2nd Competition on Counter Measures to 2D Face Spoofing Attacks is to challenge(More)